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Kharijite

  Kharijite Islam

Kharijite (lit. "those who seceded") is a general term embracing a variety of Muslim sects which, while originally supporting the Caliphate of Ali, eventually rejected his legitimacy after he negotiated with Mu'awiya during the 7th Century Islamic civil war (First Fitna)

 Their complaint was that the Imam must be spiritually pure, and that Ali's compromise with Mu'awiya was a compromise of his spiritual purity, and therefore of his legitimacy as Imam or Caliph. While there are few remaining Kharijite or Kharijite-related groups, the term is sometimes used to denote Muslims who refuse to compromise with those with whom they disagree.

The only surviving Kharijite sect is the Ibadi. The sect developed out of the 7th century Islamic sect of the Kharijites. Nonetheless, Ibadis see themselves as quite different from the Kharijite. Believed to be one of the earliest schools, it is said to have been founded less than 50 years after the death of Muhammad.

It is the dominant form of Islam in Oman, but small numbers of Ibadi followers may also be found in countries in Northern and Eastern Africa. The early medieval Rustamid dynasty in Algeria was Ibadi.

Ibadis usually consider non-Ibadi Muslims as unbelievers, though nowadays this attitude has highly relaxed. They approve of the caliphates of Abū Bakr and Umar ibn al-Khattab, whom they regard as the "Two Rightly-Guided Caliphs". Specific beliefs include: walāyah- friendship and unity with the practicing true believers and the Ibadi Imams, barā'ah- dissociation and hostility towards the unbelievers and sinners, and wuqūf- reservation towards those whose status is unclear. While Ibadi Muslims maintain most of the beliefs of the original Kharijites, they have rejected the more aggressive methods.

The Sufris (Arabic: سفريين) were a sect of Islam in the 7th and 8th centuries, and a part of the Kharijites. They believe Sura 12 (Yusuf) of the Qur'an is not an authentic Sura.


 
Ibadi


Ibadi

The Ibāḍī movement or Ibāḍiyya (Arabic: الاباضية al-Ibāḍiyyah) is a form of Islam distinct from the Shi'a and Sunni denominations. It is the dominant form of Islam in Oman. There are also Ibadis in Algeria, Tunisia, East Africa as well as Libya.

Believed to be one of the earliest schools, it is said to have been founded less than 50 years after the death of the prophet Muhammad pbuh. Some historians think that the denomination developed out of the seventh-century Islamic sect known as the Khawarij or Kharijites. Nonetheless, Ibadis see themselves different from the Khawarij.

Origin

The school derives its name from Abdullah ibn Ibadh at-Tamīmī. Followers of this sect, however, claim its true founder was Jabir ibn Zaid al-'Azdi from Nizwa, Oman.

Views

Ibadi communities are generally regarded as conservative, for example Ibadiyya rejects the practice of qunoot or supplications while standing in prayer.

Sunni Muslims traditionally regard the Ibadiyya as a Kharijite group, but Ibadis reject this designation. Ibadis regard other Muslims not as kafir "unbelievers" (as most Kharijite groups did), but as kuffar an-ni'ma "those who deny God's grace", though nowadays this attitude has relaxed.

They believe that the attitude of a true believer to others is expressed in three religious obligations:

  • walāyah: friendship and unity with the practicing true believers, and with the Ibadi Imams.
  • barā'ah: dissociation (but not hostility) towards unbelievers and sinners, and those destined for Hell.
  • wuqūf: reservation towards those whose status is unclear.

Unlike the Kharijites, Ibadi have abandoned the practice of not associating with other Muslims.

Doctrinal differences with Sunni Islam

Ibadis also have several doctrinal differences with orthodox Sunni Islam, chief among them:

  • Muslims will not see God on the Day of Judgement. This is derived from the Qur'an where Musa (Moses) is told upon asking to see God, "You shall not see me." This is contrary to the mainstream Sunni belief that Muslims will see God with their eyes on the day of Judgment. This matches the beliefs of Shia Muslims. Imam Ali "Eyes cannot see Him, but he can be seen by the realities of faith" Nahj al-Balagha.
  • Whosoever enters the Hellfire, will live therein forever. This is contrary to the Sunni belief that those Muslims who enter the Hellfire will live therein for a fixed amount of time, to purify them of their shortcomings, after which they will enter Paradise. Sunnis also believe, however, that unbelievers will be in the Hellfire forever.
  • The Qur'an was created by God at a certain point in time. The Sunni community holds that the Qur'an is uncreated, as exemplified by the suffering of Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal during the Mihna. Much of the Shi'a community also holds that the Qur'an was created, one of many theological beliefs that they share with the Mu'tazilah.

Views on Islamic history and caliphate

Ibadis agree with Sunnis in approving of Abu Bakr and Umar ibn al-Khattab, whom they regard as the two rightly-guided Caliphs. They regard Uthman ibn Affan as having introduced bid'ah "innovations" into Islam, and approve of the revolt which overthrew him. They also approve of the first part of Ali’s caliphate, and, like Shi'as, disapprove of Aisha's rebellion against him and also disapprove of Muawiya's revolt. However, they regard Ali's acceptance of arbitration at the Battle of Siffin against Muawiya's rebels as un-Islamic and as rendering him unfit for the Imamate, and they condemn Ali for killing the Muslims of an-Nahr in the Battle of Nahrawan.

In their belief, the fifth legitimate Caliph was Abdullah ibn Wahb al-Rasibi. All Caliphs from Muawiya onwards are regarded as tyrants except Umar ibn Abdul Aziz, on whom opinions differ. However, various later Ibadi leaders are recognized as true imams, including Abdullah ibn Yahya al-Kindi of South Arabia and the imams of the Rustamid dynasty in North Africa.

Demographics

Ibadi Muslims make up a majority (roughly 75%) of the population in Oman. They are also found in the Nafusa Mountains in Libya, Mzab in Algeria, East Africa (particularly Zanzibar) and Djerba Island in Tunisia. The early medieval Rustamid dynasty in Algeria was Ibadi, and refugees from its capital Tahert founded the North African Ibadi communities which exist today in the Mozabite Valley.


 
Ismailliya


Ismailliya

Ismāʿīlism (Arabic: الإسماعيليون al-Ismāʿīliyyūn; Persian: اسماعیلیان Esmāʿiliyān; Urdu: إسماعیلی Ismāʿīlī) is a branch of the Islamic faith. It is the second largest part of the Shī‘ah community, after the mainstream Twelvers (Ithnāʿashariyya). The Ismāʿīlī get their name from their acceptance of Ismāʿīl ibn Jaʿfar as the divinely appointed spiritual successor (Imām) to Jaʿfar aṣ-Ṣādiq, wherein they differ from the Twelvers, who accept Mūsà al-Kāżim, younger brother of Ismāʿīl, as the true Imām.

Tracing its earliest theology to the lifetime of Muḥammad, Ismāʿīlism rose at one point to become the largest branch of Shī‘ism, climaxing as a political power with the Fatimid Empire in the tenth through twelfth centuries. In common with other Muslims, Ismailis believe in the oneness of God, as well as the closing of divine revelation with Muḥammad, who they see as the final prophet and messenger of God to all humanity. The Ismāʿīlī and the Twelvers both accept the same initial A'immah from the descendants of Muḥammad through his daughter Fāṭimah az-Zahra and therefore share much of their early history. Both groups see the family ofMuḥammad (Ahl al-Bayt) as divinely chosen, infallible (ismah), and guided by God to lead the Islamic community (Ummah).

After the death—or Occultation according to Seveners—of Muhammad ibn Ismail in the 8th century CE, the teachings of Ismailism further transformed into the belief system as it is known today, with an explicit concentration on the deeper, esoteric meaning (batin) of the Islamic religion. With the eventual development of Twelverism  into the more literalistic (zahir) oriented Akhbari and later Usooli schools of thought, Shi'ism developed into two separate directions: the metaphorical Ismāʿīlī group focusing on the mystical path and nature of Allah, with the "Imām of the Time" representing the manifestation of truth and reality, with the more literalistic Twelver group focusing on divine law (sharia) and the deeds and sayings (sunnah) of Muhammad and the Twelve Imams who were guides and a light to God.

Though there are several paths (tariqah) within the Ismāʿīlīs, the term in today's vernacular generally refers to the Nizari path, which recognizes the Aga Khan as the 49th hereditary Imam and is the largest group among the Ismāʿīlīs. While some of the branches have extremely differing exterior practices, much of the spiritual theology has remained the same since the days of the faith's early Imāms. In recent centuries Ismāʿīlīs have largely been an Indo-Iranian community, but Ismāʿīlī are found in India, Pakistan, Syria, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, China, Jordan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, East Africa, Syria, and South Africa, and have in recent years emigrated to Europe, Australia, New Zealand, and North America.

Beliefs

 

Ismaili believe the Qur'an has two layers of meaning, the zahir meaning apparent, and the batin, meaning hidden.

The Ismāʿīlīs understand the Qur'an to have several layers of meaning, but generally divide those types of meanings into two: the apparent (zahir) meaning and the hidden (batin) meaning. While a believer can understand the batin meaning to some extent, the ultimate interpretation lies in the office of the Imāmate. The Imām's farmans (teachings) are binding upon the community. In this way, the Ismāʿīlī community can adapt to new times and new places.

The Ginans

The Ginans are Nizari Ismā‘īlī religious texts. They are written in the form of poetry by Pirs to interpret the meanings of Qur’anic ayat into the languages of the Indian subcontinent, especially Gujarati and Urdu. In comparison to Ginans, Ismāʿīlīs of other origins, such as Persians, Arabs, and Central Asians have qasidas (Arabic: قصيدة) written by missionaries. See Works of Pir Sadardin

Reincarnation

Reincarnation exists in the Druze branch of Ismailism. The Druze believe that members of their community can only be reincarnated within the community. It is also known that Druze believe in five cosmic principles, represented by the five colored Druze star: intelligence/reason (green), soul (red), word (yellow), precedent (blue), and immanence (white). These virtues take the shape of five different spirits which, until recently, have been continuously reincarnated on Earth as prophets and philosophers including Adam, the ancient Greek mathematician and astronomer Pythagoras, and the ancient Pharaoh of Egypt Akhenaten, and many others. The Druze believe that, in every time period, these five principles were personified in five different people who came down together to Earth to teach humans the true path to God and nirvana, but that with them came five other individuals who would lead people away from the right path into "darkness".

Numerology

Ismāʿīlīs believe numbers have religious meanings. The number seven plays a general role in the theology of the Ismā'īliyya, including mystical speculations that there are seven heavens, seven continents, seven orifices in the skull, seven days in a week, and so forth.

Imamate

In Nizari Ismailism, the Imām is seen through the Qur'anic phrase, “The Face of God.” The Imām is truth and reality itself, and hence he is their path of salvation to God.

Sevener Ismāʿīlī doctrine holds that divine revelation had been given in six periods (daur) entrusted to six prophets, who they also call Natiq (Speaker), who were commissioned to preach a religion of law to their respective communities.

Whereas the Natiq was concerned with the rites and outward shape of religion, the inner meaning is entrusted to a Wasi (Representative). The Wasi would know the secret meaning of all rites and rules and would reveal them to a small circles of initiates.

The Natiq and the Wasi are in turn succeeded by a line of seven Imāms, who would guard what they received. The seventh and last Imām in any period would in turn be the Natiq of the next period. The last Imām of the sixth period however would not bring about a new religion of law but supersede all previous religions, abrogate the law and introduce din Adama al-awwal ("the original religion of Adam") practised by Adam and the Angels in paradise before the fall, which would be without cult or law but consist merely in all creatures praising the creator and recognizing his unity. This final stage was called Qiyamah.




 
Sufri


Sufri

The Sufris (Arabic: سفريونالas-Sufriyyūn) were a Khariji sect of Islam that existed in the 7th and 8th centuries. They established the Midrarid state at Sijilmassa.

In Algeria (Tlemcen), the Banu Ifran were Sufri Berbers who opposed Umayyad, Abbasids and Fatimid rule, most notably under resistance movements lead by Abu Qurra and Abu Yazid.


 
Salafism


Salafism (Arabic: سلفي "predecessors" or "early generations"), is a Sunni Islamic school of thought that takes the pious ancestors (Salaf) of the patristic period of early Islam as exemplary models. Early usage of the term appears in the book Al-Ansab by Abu Sa'd Abd al-Kareem al-Sama'ni, who died in the year 1166 (562 of the Islamic calendar). Under the entry for the ascription al-Salafi he stated, "This is an ascription to the salaf, or the predecessors, and the adoptation of their school of thought based upon what I have heard." He then mentions an example or more of people who were utilizing this ascription in his time. However, an even earlier ascription of the term Salaf was used by Muhammad PBUH who noted, "I am the best Salaf for you."

Salafis view the first three generations of Muslims, who are Muhammad's PBUH companions, and the two succeeding generations after them, the Tabi‘in and the Taba‘ at-Tabi‘in, as examples of how Islam should be practiced. This principle is derived from the following Sunni hadith by Muhammad PBUH:
“     The people of my generation are the best, then those who follow them, and then those who follow the latter (i.e. the first three generations of Muslims).    ”

The principal tenet of Salafism is that Islam was perfect and complete during the days of Muhammad PBUH and his companions, but that undesirable innovations have been added over the later centuries due to materialist and cultural influences. Salafism seeks to revive a practice of Islam that more closely resembles the religion during the time of Muhammad PBUH. Salafism has also been described as a simplified version of Islam, in which adherents follow a few commands and practices.

Salafism is often used interchangeably with "Wahhabism". Adherents usually reject this term because it is considered derogatory and because they believe that Muhammad ibn Abd-al-Wahhab did not establish a new school of thought nor self-describe themselves as such. Typically, adherents used terms like "Muwahidoon," "Ahle Hadith," or "Ahl at-Tawheed."

The word "Salaf" is an Arabic noun which may be translated as "(righteous) predecessor" or "(pious) ancestor."[9] In Islamic terminology, it is generally used to refer to the first three generations of Muslims: the Sahabah, the Tabi‘in and the Taba‘ at-Tabi‘in. These three generations are looked upon as examples of how Islam should be practiced.

Usage of phrase was noted by early Islamic scholars, including As-Sam'aanee who said: "As-Salafi: this is an ascription to the Salaf and following their ways, in that which is related from them." In commenting upon as-Sam'aanee's saying, Ibn al-Atheer noted: "And a group were known by this ascription." Thus the term Salafi, and its ascription to the group, was a matter known in the time of early Islamic scholars. [10]

Other scholars, such as Ibn Taymiyyah have noted:
“     There is no criticism for the one who proclaims the madhab of the Salaf, who attaches himself to it and refers to it. Rather, it is obligatory to accept that from him by unanimous agreement (ittifaaq) because the way (madhdhab) of the Salaf is nothing but the Truth (al-Haqq).

Just who, or what groups and movements, qualify as salafi is disputed. Some define the term broadly, including the Muslim Brotherhood (who include the term salafi in the min nahnu (about us)  and the Deobandi Others exclude the Muslim Brotherhood and the Deobandi since they believe these groups commit religious innovations (bid'ah), or worse.

Whichever definition is used, Salafis idealize an uncorrupted, pure Islamic religious community. They believe that Islam's decline after the early generations is the result of religious innovations (bid‘ah) and that an Islamic revival will result through the emulation of the three early generations and the purging of foreign influences from the religion.

Abstaining from Bidah or Newly invented matters in the Islamic creed

Salafis maintain that bidah or innovation in the Islamic creed can cause considerable rifts amongst Muslims and future generations of Muslims. They explain that Muslims in one part of the world who engage in bidahs, such as circumambulating around shrines of saints,  celebrating Muhammad's PBUH birthday,or commemorating the day of the death of a saint ("urs"), may not receive their newly invented practice with much welcome in other areas of the Islamic world where the practice is totally foreign, thus sparking dogmatic division. Salafis further assert that actions stemming from a practice rooted in bidah will not result in any reward in spite of a worshiper's good intentions and, are dangerous to the Islamic creed since they replace or corrupt the religious practices ("Sunnah") of Muhammad.PBUH  Salafis assert that if such practices increase a devotee's faith, Muhammad PBUH  would have known about it and assuredly directed Muslims to do such acts since he was the best worshiper amongst mankind and most dutiful. In showing textual support for the impermissibility of bidah or innovation in the Islamic creed, Salafis frequently quote Prophet Muhammad PBUH  who emphasized: "Every innovation is misguidance and going astray."Salafis maintain that Muhammad PBUH  also warned against the People of Innovation, from befriending, supporting, or taking from them, as Muhammad PBUH  noted: "Whoever innovates or accommodates an innovator then upon him is the curse of Allah, His Angels, and the whole of mankind.” Salafis often quote many companions of Muhammad PBUH  including Ibn Abbas who said: "Indeed the most detestable of things to Allah are the innovations," and, Ibn Umar who said: "Every innovation is misguidance, even if the people see it as something good."

Earlier generations of Muslims like Imam Malik conveyed similar sentiment: "Whosoever introduces into Islam an innovation, and holds it to be something good, has indeed alleged that Muhammad (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) has betrayed his message." Imam Malik then stressed: "Read the saying of Allah – the Most Blessed, the Most High: This day I have perfected your Religion for you, completed My favour upon you and I have chosen for you Islam as your Religion. [Al-Maa‘idah 5:3]. Malik then concluded: "So that which was not part of the Religion at that time, cannot be part of the Religion today...And the last part of this Ummah cannot be rectified, except by that which rectified its first part."

Similarly, Abu Hanifa emphasized: "Adhere to the athar (narration) and the tareeqah (way) of the Salaf (Pious Predecessors) and beware of newly invented matters (in Religion) for all of it is innovation." Likewise, Shaikh Saalih Aal ash-Shaikh, Minister of Islamic Affairs of Saudi Arabia, stated: "Muslims are of two groups: Salafis and Khalafis. As for the Salafis, then they are the followers of Salafus Saalih (first three generations of Muslims). And as for the Khalafis, then they are the followers of the understanding of the Khalaf and they are also called Innovators - since everyone who is not pleased and satisfied with the path of the Salafus Saalih, in knowledge and action, understanding and fiqh, then he is a khalafi, an innovator."

Particular emphasis is given to monotheism - (tawhid); many Muslim practices which have now become common are condemned as polytheism (shirk). Salafis believe that widespread Muslim practices such as venerating the graves of Islamic prophets and saints to be shirk. Salafis in general are opposed to both Sufi and Shi'a doctrines, which Salafis regard as having many aspects of shirk, bid`ah and impermissible intercession of religious figures.

Salafis reject the application of discourse and debate in the development of Islamic theology (a doctrine known as "kalam"). They consider this process as a foreign import from Greek philosophy (such as Plato and Aristotle) and alien to the original practice of Islam. Imaam adh-Dhahabee (d. 748H) said:
“ It is authentically related from ad-Daaraqutnee that he said: There is nothing more despised by me than kalam (innovating speech and rhetoric). I say: He never entered into kalam, nor argumentation. Rather, was a Salafee (a follower of the Salaf).”

Salafis, similar to adherents of orthodox denominations of Islam, place great emphasis on ritual not only in prayer but in every activity in daily life -- many are careful to always use three fingers when eating, drink water in three pauses with the right hand while sitting, make sure their galabea or other garment worn by them does not extend below the ankle -- so as to follow the example of Muhammad PBUH and the companions and make religion part of every activity in life.


 
    
Pagal President


The roar and screams of the western press fails to reach the shores of Pakistan and to the poor inhabitants that it is not 10% anymore but 100% insane, is Asif Zardari.

 “Asif Zardari was diagnosed with a range of serious illnesses including dementia, major depressive disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder in a series of medical reports spanning more than two years.”- Finanical Times, August 25 2008. Philip Saltiel, a New York City-based psychiatrist, said in a March 2007 diagnosis.

Now, if things get really screwy, the insanity plea is what the doctor prescribed and no one takes blame. Well done Pakistanis. You got what you deserved. I love Pakistani style democracy.

Could the new President make the whole nation pagal with him, only time will tell? It is a new ignominious world title he holds. Applause, please.

Even before he took oath of office he said “‘Promises and pledges made during the election days are not ‘hadis’ or the Holy Scripture and should not be considered sacrosanct’.

“The promise given was a necessity of the past:  the word broken is a necessity of the present.”  ~Niccolo Machiavelli

He is not the only one pulling off such shenanigans, of breaking promises, Nawaz Sharif promised not to participate in the elections and he did.  All the other dictators are holding their trophies high above their heads as well. A broken down Pakistan, of broken promises. And the race goes on.

I am sure like the rising sun, in Zardari speakeasy;  "The devil can cite Scripture for his purpose"  Shakespeare- Hamlet

Pakistan is the only nation where prior executive experience is not a requirement of a President or Prime Minister post. On the job training is a democratic experience. Bravo. How, then we expect miracles?

In case of Pakistan the future is not hard to predict. The cracked crystal ball in a crack’s hand is a cracked outcome.

I do not see in foreseeable future how things can improve. All the party heads of political parties have monopolized them by stowing with their own kith and kin. So, it will be just more of the same.

Pakistan needs long term solution by taking drastic measures now. And I propose:

1. Start pushing Party reforms now.
2. Mayors should balance their own city books.
3. Remove the chief Minister Position.
4. Governors should be elected and not appointed. He should be accountable to balance Provincial books.
5. Pakistan cannot afford the luxury of two heads of a poor state. Remove one position.
6. No orders should come from Federal Government, to Provincial Governments.
7. Federal Government should only be responsible for Defense Forces, Foreign affairs and overall welfare of People of Pakistan.
8.  Keep religion at personal level and no infliction from the State.

You want change then make every present and past head honchos pay for their irresponsible acts.

"If you prick us, do we not bleed? if you tickle us, do we not laugh? if you poison us, do we not die? and if you wrong us, shall we not revenge?". Shakespeare- The Merchant of venice.

How many pages do we need to ink them before we stand up and be counted? Are you ready for a change or this will be mere gossip? How many tsunamis will move us into action?

‘Thanks for asking’ should now someone else regale us with another anecdote.

In the end I am reminded of Shakespeare in Measure for Measure:

 "The miserable have no other medicine but only hope"

Let us act now and pull together to make a united Pakistan a better place to live. Yes we can.

Long Live Pakistan!

Regards,

Nadeem Naik

Sept. 09, 2008

 
Wahhabism


Wahhabism (Arabic: Al-Wahhābīyya الوهابية) or Wahabism is a conservative reformist call of Sunni Islam attributed to Muhammad ibn Abd-al-Wahhab, an 18th century scholar from what is today known as Saudi Arabia, who advocated a return to the practices of the first three generations of Islamic history.

Wahhabism is the dominant form of Islam in Saudi Arabia and Qatar, and is also popular in Kuwait, Egypt, U.A.E., Bahrain, Morocco, Algeria and Mauritania. It is often referred to as a "sect"or "branch" of Islam, though both its supporters and its enemies[citation needed] reject such designations.

The primary doctrine of Wahhabism is Tawhid, or the uniqueness and unity of God. Ibn Abdul Wahhab was influenced by the writings of Ibn Taymiyya and questioned medieval interpretations of Islam, claiming to rely on the Quran and the Hadith. He preached against a "perceived moral decline and political weakness" in the Arabian peninsula and condemned idolatry, the popular cult of saints, and shrine and tomb visitation.

The term "Wahhabi" (Wahhābīya) was first used by opponents of ibn Abdul Wahhab[citation needed]. It is considered derogatory by the people it is used to describe, who prefer to be called "unitarians" (Muwahiddun).

The terms "Wahhabism" and "Salafism" are often used interchangeably, but Wahhabism has also been called "a particular orientation within Salafism," an orientation some consider ultra-conservative.

Wahhabism (Arabic: Al-Wahhābīyya الوهابية) or Wahabism is a conservative reformist call of Sunni Islam attributed to Muhammad ibn Abd-al-Wahhab, an 18th century scholar from what is today known as Saudi Arabia, who advocated a return to the practices of the first three generations of Islamic history.

Wahhabism is the dominant form of Islam in Saudi Arabia and Qatar, and is also popular in Kuwait, Egypt, U.A.E., Bahrain, Morocco, Algeria and Mauritania. It is often referred to as a "sect" or "branch" of Islam, though both its supporters and its enemies[citation needed] reject such designations.

The primary doctrine of Wahhabism is Tawhid, or the uniqueness and unity of God. Ibn Abdul Wahhab was influenced by the writings of Ibn Taymiyya and questioned medieval interpretations of Islam, claiming to rely on the Quran and the Hadith.[3] He preached against a "perceived moral decline and political weakness" in the Arabian peninsula and condemned idolatry, the popular cult of saints, and shrine and tomb visitation.

The term "Wahhabi" (Wahhābīya) was first used by opponents of ibn Abdul Wahhab. It is considered derogatory by the people it is used to describe, who prefer to be called "unitarians" (Muwahiddun).

The terms "Wahhabism" and "Salafism" are often used interchangeably, but Wahhabism has also been called "a particular orientation within Salafism," an orientation some consider ultra-conservative.

Saudi sponsorship

Beginning in the last years of the 18th century Ibn Saud and his heirs would spend the next 140 years mounting various military campaigns to seize control of Arabia and its outlying regions, before being attacked and defeated by Ottoman forces.

One of their most famous and controversial attacks was on Karbala in 1802 (1217 AH). There, according to a Wahhabi chronicler `Uthman b. `Abdullah b. Bishr, Wahhabis "scaled the walls, entered the city ... and killed the majority of its people in the markets and in their homes." They "destroyed the dome placed over the grave of al-Husayn" and took "whatever they found inside the dome and its surroundings. .... the grille surrounding the tomb which was encrusted with emeralds, rubies, and other jewels. .... different types of property, weapons, clothing, carpets, gold, silver, precious copies of the Qur'an."

In the early 20th Century, the Wahhabist-oriented Al-Saud dynasty conquered and unified the various provinces on the Arabian peninsula, founding the modern day Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 1932.This provided the movement with a state. Vast wealth from oil discovered in the following decades, coupled with Saudi control of the holy cities of Mecca and Medina, have since provided a base and funding for wahhabi missionary activity.

Beliefs

Wahhabi theology treats the Qur'an and Hadith as fundamental texts interpreted by the understanding of the first three generations of Muslims and further explained by various commentaries.

The most important of these commentaries are those by Ibn Abd-al-Wahhab including his book Kitab al-Tawhid, and the works of Ibn Taymiyya. Abd-al-Wahhab was a follower of Ibn Hanbal's school of jurisprudence like most in Najd at the time, but "was opposed to any of the schools (Madh'hab) being taken as an absolute and unquestioned authority," and condemned taqlid.

Wahhabism also denounces the practice of blind adherence to the interpretations of scholars and the blind acceptance of practices that were passed on within the family or tribe. Ibn Abd al-Wahhab wrote in support of the responsibility of the individual Muslim to learn and obey the divine commands as they were revealed in the Quran and the Sunnah.

Fiqh

Wahhabis are sometimes said to follow Hanbali school of fiqh (or Madh'hab) but also said to follow no school of fiqh. It was said that:

 The Wahhabis consider themselves to be 'non-imitators' or 'not attached to tradition' (ghayr muqallidun), and therefore answerable to no school of law at all, observing instead what they would call the practice of early Islam. However, to do so does correspond to the ideal aimed at by Ibn Hanbal, and thus they can be said to be of his 'school'

Enjoining virtue and prohibiting vice

Wahhabism does not just urge Muslims to follow the religious duties of Islam, such as salah, but compels them to do so. In Saudi Arabia for example, the Committee for the Propagation of Virtue and the Prevention of Vice, a state religious police unit, has been set up for this purpose.


 
Hanbali

Hanbali (Arabic: حنبلى ) is one of the four schools (Madhhabs) of Fiqh or religious law within Sunni Islam (the other three being Hanafi, Maliki and Shafi`i). It is also claimed to be a school of aqeedah (creed) in Sunni Islam according to the Wahabi and Salafi sects but Sunni scholars reject this positiion. The Salafi's have also referred to this as the Athari (or Textualist) school.

The jurisprudence school was started by the students of Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal (d. 855). Hanbali jurisprudence is predominant among Muslims in the Arabian Peninsula, although students of Islam throughout the world study and may choose to observe its conclusions about Islamic practice.

Ahmad’s Five Basic Juristic Principles

Despite being an exceptional jurist, Imam Ahmad detested that his opinions be written and compiled, fearing that it may swerve his students away from studying the sources of Law, the Quran and the Sunnah. Yet, as Ibn al-Jawzi comments, Allah knew the sincerity in his heart and raised around him faithful students who would record his opinions, such that an independent school of jurisprudence and theology was formed and attributed to Imam Ahmad.

Imam Ahmad employed exceptional caution while formulating juristic opinions and issuing verdicts, and would frequently warn his students of speaking in a matter in which you have no reputable predecessor. This prudent attitude is clearly demonstrated in the thought process applied by Ahmad in extrapolation of laws from the divine sources, which is as follows:

1) Divine text (the Quran and the Sunnah) was the first point of reference for all scholars of jurisprudence, and in this, Ahmad was not an exception. Whenever he noticed a divine textual evidence for an issue, he never referred to other sources, opinions of the Companions, scholars or resorted to analogical deduction (Qiyas).

2) Verdicts issued by the companions were resorted to when no textual evidence was found in the Quran or the Sunnah. The reasons for ranking the verdicts of the Companions after the Quran and the Sunnah are obvious: The Companions witnessed the revelation of the Quran, and its implementation by Muhammad, who advised the Ummah to adhere to the rightly-guided caliphs, hence, the companions ought to have a better understanding than the latter generations.

Imam Ahmad, would likewise, never give precedence to a scholarly opinion or analogical deduction (Qiyas) over that of the Companions’, to the extent that if they were divided into two camps over an issue, two different narrations would similarly be documented from Imam Ahmad.

3) In a case where the companions differed, he preferred the opinion supported by the divine texts (the Quran and the Sunnah).

4) In instances where none of the above was applicable, Ahmad would resort to the mursal Hadith (with a link missing between the Successor and Muhammad or a weak hadith. However, the type of weak Hadith that Ahmad relied on was such that it may be regarded as fair hadith due to other evidences (Hasan li Ghairihi), not the type that is deemed very weak and thus unsuitable as an evidence for Law. This was due to the fact that, during his time, the Hadith was only categorised into ‘sound’ (sahih) and ‘weak’ (da’if). It was only after Ahmad, that al-Tirmidhi introduced a third category of ‘fair’ (hasan).

5) Only after having exhausted the aforementioned sources would Imam Ahmad employ analogical deduction (Qiyas) due to necessity, and with utmost care.

Ahmad’s doctrine

As demonstrated previously, Imam Ahmad became the leading authority on the Orthodox doctrine of Islam, which represented the first three blessed generations of Islam, untainted with foreign dogmas. Ahmad’s doctrinal influence can be measured by the fact that, out of the four traditional schools, the Hanbali school alone maintained its own theological view, unlike the Hanafi school which adopted the Maturidi doctrine, or the Shafi’i and Maliki schools that adopted the Ash’ari doctrine.[neutrality disputed] The secret for this was the depth and length at which Ahmad spoke in matters of theology, due to the prevailing unorthodoxy in his age, headed by the Mu’tazilites. Due to this it is noted that there have been, in comparison to other schools, very few Hanbalis who inclined towards unorthodox views, for the copious volume of narrations from Imam Ahmad dealing with specific issues of doctrine made it extremely difficult for his followers to adhere to any other, yet still remain faithful followers.

Imam Ahmad’s doctrine could be summarised as follows:

   1. He would believe in the description that Allah gave to himself in the Quran, or inspired Muhammad with, affirming such at their face value (Dhahir), while generally negating any resemblance between the Creator and the creation.
   2. He would vigorously reject negative theology (Ta’til), as well as allegorical exegesis (Ta’wil), with respect to belief in Allah, which was heavily employed by the Jahmites and Mu’tazilities.
   3. He believed that Allah Speaks with letters and sound, for he believed every word and letter of the Quran to be the word of Allah, uncreated.
   4. He believed that Allah is High above and distinct from His creation.
   5. He believed that Allah is all Knowing, All Wise, All Power and All Able, and that Allah has His own Will, He Does what He likes out of His Wisdom. Whatever Allah has Written and Decreed upon His creation, must come to pass. Nothing leaves His knowledge, or happens without His Permission or Will.
   6. He believed that Allah becomes Pleased when obeyed and Displeased when disobeyed.
   7. He held that the sinners amongst the Muslims are under the threat of Allah's punishment; that if He wishes He may Punish them or Forgive them; Contrary to the Khawarij. He would not declare a Muslim to be a disbeliever (Kafir) on account of his sins, nor would he exclude actions from Iman unlike the Murji'a.
   8. He believed in the miracles that occurred at the hands of the Awliya' (pious Muslims) as a favour from Allah.
   9. He believed that Abu Bakr is the best of the companions, followed by Umar, then the six companions chosen by the latter as Ashab al-Shura (members of Shura council): Uthman, Ali, al-Zubair, Talha, Abd-al-Rahman ibn Awf and Sa`ad ibn Abi Waqqas; followed by the fighters of Badr from the emigrants (Muhajirun) and then the helpers (Ansar).
  10. He prohibited discussions on the differences between the companions or dislike of any of them; for the honor of companionship with Muhammad is sufficient a virtue to rank them higher than the entire Muslim Ummah until the end of time.
  11. He would look down upon discussing in detail the attributes of Allah, instead choosing a simple position of "Affirm them without attributing human characteristics", as to not lose sight of what is important...i.e. good deeds

Increasing Number of Hanbalis

Historically, the Hanbali Madhab has always been known for having fewer followers comparatively to the remaining schools. Some even argued that the small number of followers was indicative of an inherent weakness of the Madhab and its lack of popularity. Hanbalis often responded with the following verse of poetry:

Yaquluna fi ashabi ahmada qillatun

Fa qultu lahum inn al-kirama qalilu

They say of Ahmad’s followers: How few they are!

Thus, I said to them: The dignified are always few

The secret behind the spread of any particular Madhab, or lack thereof, has mainly been the authorities, responsible for bestowing the Islamic courts to one faction, at the expense of the other. In a land where courts were dominated by a particular Madhab, a student qualifying in a different Madhab had no future, and consequently, was forced to migrate, or embrace the native Madhab.

The Hanbalis, however, had an inherent tendency of declining lofty positions offered by the authorities. Hence, Abu al-Wafa Ibn ‘Aqil al-Hanbali remarks that the Hanbali Madhab has been ‘oppressed’ by none other than Hanbalis themselves. For whenever a Hanbali would excel in knowledge, he would submerge himself in worship and gratitude to Allah, embrace the ascetic life (Zuhd) and divorce himself from fame, status and worldly life. This was also confirmed by a prominent Shafi’i traditionist and a historian, al-Dhahabi, in his book Zaghl al-‘Ilm where he describes the Hanbalis with similar distinguishing qualities.

The Hanbalis had remained an insignificant minority, and perhaps, close to extinction, until Muhammad b. ‘Abd al-Wahhab arose in Najd forming an influential revivalist movement, with the aim to purify the true understanding of Islamic monotheism (Tawhid), in a society stained with pre-Islamic pagan beliefs and practices. After a period of persecution and exile, he joined forces with Muhammad b. Su’ud and successfully revived the enforcement of the much-neglected Shariah laws.

A scant reading of the Islamic history illustrates that the Hanbalis are known for having an outstanding character, fearlessness and eagerness for enjoining the good and forbidding the evil, with Imam Ahmad setting the precedence by remaining steadfast during the inquisition. After the demise of Imam Ahmad, the Hanbalis grew stronger in Baghdad, and as Ibn ‘Asakir notes, they would patrol the streets, during which, if they noticed a man with an unrelated woman, they would report him to the police; or if they noticed a musical instrument or a bottle of alcohol, they would smash it. Al-Khiraqi, who was the first Hanbali scholar to write a Fiqh manual, died after being severely beaten while attempting to combat evils in Damascus. Ibn Taymiyah would likewise patrol the streets with his students, during which, if they noticed anyone playing chess they would disrupt the game; or if they saw utensils of alcohol or musical instruments, they would smash them. Ibn Taymiyah was also greatly admired for his fearless encounter with the ruthless Mongolian invader of Damascus, Qazan; as he is also remembered for his frequent imprisonment for defense of the orthodox doctrine.


 
Shafi`i


Shafi`i was founded by Imam Muhammad ibn Idris ash-Shafi`i, and has adherents among many high ranking Islamic scholars. It is practiced throughout the Ummah, but is most prevalent in Egypt, Somalia, Indonesia, Thailand, Singapore and the Philippines, and is the school of thought officially followed by the government of Brunei Darussalam and Malaysia. It is followed by approximately 15% of Muslims world-wide.

Principles

The Shāfi‘ī School of thought stipulates authority to four sources of jurisprudence, also known as the Usul al-fiqh. In hierarchical order the usul al-fiqh consist of: the Quran, the Sunnah of Prophet Muhammad, PBUH ijma' (consensus), and qiyas (analogy). The Shāfi‘ī school also refers to the opinions of Muhammad's PBUH companions (primarily Al-Khulafa ar-Rashidun). The school, based on Shāfi‘ī's books ar-Risala fi Usul al-Fiqh and Kitāb al-Umm, which emphasizes proper istinbaat (derivation of laws) through the rigorous application of legal principles as opposed to speculation or conjecture. It is considered one of the more conservative of the four schools of Islamic jurisprudence.

Imam Shafi`i approached the imperatives of the Islamic Shariah (Canon Law) distinctly in his own systematic methodology. Imam Shafi`i, Imam Malik and Imam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal almost entirely exclude the exercise of private judgment in the exposition of legal principles. They are wholly governed by the force of precedents, adhering to the Scripture and Traditions; they also do not admit the validity of a recourse to analogical deduction of such an interpretation of the Law whereby its spirit is adopted to the special circumstances of any special case. Their followers are accordingly designated as "Ahlul-Hadith" or "Traditionalists Par Excellence', while the followers of Abu Hanifa are called "Ahlul Ra'i" - the "People of Private Judgement"

The founder of this School, is also known as the "First Among Equals" for his exhaustive knowledge and systematic methodology to religious science. His approach to Islamic jurisprudence has become the standard reference of the scholars not only among his School but among others as well. There is a famous Fiqh maxim, "The Shafiites are the Pillars of Knowledge of this Religion." Among the giants of Islam who adopted this School are:-

Imams of Aqidah:

    * Abu Al-Hasan Ash'ari

Imams of Hadith:

    * Imam Muhammad al-Bukhari
    * Imam Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj
    * Imam Nasa'i
    * Imam Bayhaqi
    * Imam Tirmidhi
    * Imam Ibn Majah
    * Imam Ibn Hibban
    * Imam Daraqutni
    * Imam Tabari (who later became independent Mujtahid)
    * Al-Hafiz Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani
    * Imam Abu Dawud
    * Imam Nawawi
    * Imam As-Suyuti
    * Imam Ibn Kathir
    * Imam Dhahabi
    * Imam Al-Hakim

Imams of Fiqh:

    * Sheikh Khatib Shirbini
    * Ibn Hajar Haytami
    * Imam Al-Rafi'ie
    * Imam An-Nawawi
    * Al-Hafiz Izzuddin Abdus-Salam
    * Imam Daqiequl-Eid

Imams of Tafser and Seerah:

    * Imam Mawardi
    * Imam Al-Baghawi
    * Imam Fakhruddin Al-Razi
    * Al-Hafiz Ibn Kathir
    * Sheikh Khatib Al-Baghdadi
    * Imam Al-Baydhawi

Other Leading Scholars and Religious Experts:

    * Imam Jalaluddin Al-Mahally
    * Imam Taqiyuddin As-Subki
    * Imam Tajuddin As-Subki
    * Sheikhul Islam Zakariyya Al-Ansari
    * Imam Ramli
    * Imam Al-Ghazzali


The Imam

His full name is Abu 'Abdullah Muhammad Ibn Idris Ibn al-Abbaas Ibn 'Uthman Ibn Shaafi' Ibn al-Sa'ib Ibn 'Ubaid Ibn Abd al-Yazid Ibn al-Muttalib Ibn Abd Manaf. Abd Manaf was the great grandfather of Muhammad.PBUH Based on this lineage, he is from the Quraish Arab tribe. He was born in 150H, in Gaza in the same year Imam Abu Hanifa died.

As a member of the school of Medina, ash-Shāfi‘ī worked to combine the pragmatism of the Medina school with the contemporary pressures of the Traditionalists. The Traditionalists maintained that jurists could not independently adduce a practice as the sunnah of Muhammad PBUH  based on ijtihad, or independent reasoning, but should only produce verdicts substantiated by authentic hadith.

Based on this claim, ash-Shāfi‘ī devised a method for systematic reasoning without relying on personal deduction. He argued that the only authoritative sunnah were those that were both of Muhammad and passed down from Muhammad PBUH  himself. He also argued that sunnah contradicting the Quran were unacceptable, claiming that sunnah should only be used to explain the Quran. Furthermore, ash-Shāfi‘ī claimed that if a practice is widely accepted throughout the Muslim community, it cannot be in contradiction of sunnah.

He was also a significant poet. His poetry is noted for its beauty, wisdom, despite the fact that during his life time he stood off becoming a poet because of his rank as an Islamic scholar. He said once:

    و لولا الشعر بالعلماء يزري
    لكنت اليوم أشعر من لبيد
    For scholars, if poetry did not degrade,
    finer than Labīd's I would have said.

However, the beauty of his poetry made people collect it in one famous book under the name Diwan-Imam-al-Shafi. Many verses are popularly known and repeated in the Arab world as proverbs:

    نعيب زماننا و العيب فينا
    و ما لزماننا عيب سوانا
    و نهجو ذا الزمان بغير ذنب
    و لو نطق الزمان لنا هجانا
    We blame our time though we are to blame.
    No fault has time but only us.
    We scold the time for all the shame.
    Did it have tongue, it would scold us

Importance of the Shāfi‘ī School

The Shāfi‘ī school is followed throughout the Ummah and is the official Madhab of traditional scholars and leading authorities of Ahlus-Sunnah, but is most prevalent amongst Kurds in Kurdistan and by other communities in Egypt, Somalia, Yemen, the Hejaz in Saudi Arabia, Indonesia, Thailand, Singapore, Philippines, Vietnam, Cambodia, Maldives, Sri Lanka, State of Kerala and Tamil Nadu in India, the district of Bhatkal in Karnataka in India, most of Sunni Muslims of konkan in Maharashtra in India , Mauritania, Ethiopia, among Chechens in Kazakhstan, Israel and the Palestinian territories, most of Lebanon, Syria and is the official madhab followed by the government of Brunei Darussalam and Malaysia. Government of Indonesia also use this madhhab for Indonesian Compilation of Sharia. It is followed by approximately 28% of Muslims world-wide, being the second largest School in terms of followers.

The Shāfi‘ī tradition is accessible to English speakers from the translation of the Reliance of the Traveller.

    * Imam Abul-Hasan Ash'ari, the Imam of Sunni Dogma and Tenets.
    * Imam Jalaluddin Al-Mahally, Sunni authority in Quranic Tafsir (exegesis)
    * Imam Suyuti, Sunni authority in history, Quran, Fiqh, Tafsir, and Hadith.
    * Imam Al-Bayhaqi, Sunni authority in Hadith; Shafiite authority in Fiqh
    * Imam Ibn Majah, Sunni authority in Hadith
    * Imam Al-Hakim, Sunni authority in Hadith
    * Imam Abu Dawud Al-Tayalisi, Sunni authority in Hadith
    * Imam Tirmizi, Sunni authority in Hadith.
    * Imam Nasa'ie, Sunni authority in Hadith.
    * Imam Daraqutni, Sunni authority in Hadith
    * Imam Tabrani, Sunni authority in Hadith
    * Imam Al-Mawardi, Sunni authority in Legal ordinances, history and Islamic governance.
    * Imam Dhahabi, Sunni authority in Hadith
    * Al Hafidh Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, Sunni's foremost authority in Hadith, author of the authoritative commentary of Sahih Bukhari.
    * Imam Al-Nawawi, Sunni's second highest authority in Hadith, Shafiite principal jurist; author of the Sahih Muslim commentary.
    * Al-Khatib al-Baghdadi, A renowned Sunni expert in Hadith methodology and jurisprudence
    * Imam Al-Baghawi, Also known as "Reviver of Sunnah", well-known for his Ma'alim Al-Tanzil in Tafsir.
    * Imam Al-Bayhawi, A Major Shafiite Exegete and Juristic Expert.
    * Imam Muhammad Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Sunni most respected exegete
    * Imam Bukhari, Sunni's most prominent Hadith authority in verification
    * Imam Muslim ibn Hajjaj, student of Imam Bukhari.
    * Ibn Kathir, top-notch Sunni expert in Tafsir, Hadith, Biography and Fiqh.
    * Sheikhul Islam Zakariyya Al-Ansari, a notable Sunni expert in jurisprudence.
    * Imam Daqiequl-Eid, Sunni specialist scholar in Fiqh and Theology
    * Sultan Al-Ulama' Izzuddin Abdul-Salam, renowned Sunni authority in legal law.
    * Zainuddin Makhdoom I and II, The Jurist and Historian (respectively) of Kerala
    * Sheikh Safi al-Din Is'haq Ardabili
    * Imam Al-Ghazali, The Early authority in Principles of Fiqh (Jurisprudence), well-known for his Al-Wasit Fi Al-Madzhab" Author of the Incoherence of The Philosophers.

Contemporary Shafi'i Scholars

    * Mufti 'Ali Gomaa' - Grand Mufti of Egypt
    * Sheikh Aboobacker Ahmad - Kerala, India
    * Sheikh Nuh Keller - Translator of Imam Nawawi's Al-Maqasid and Ahmad ibn Naqib al-Misri's Umdat al-Salik wa Uddat al-Nasik
    * Sheikh Nuh 'Ali Salman al-Qudat - Former Mufti of the Jordanian Armed Forces
    * Sheikh Al-Habib Umar bin Muhammad bin Salim bin Hafidh - Dean, Dar Al-Mustafa
    * Sheikh Al-Habib Ali Mashhour bin Muhammad bin Salim bin Hafidh - Imam of the Tarim Mosque and Head of Fatwas Council, Tarim, Yemen
    * Sheikh Al-Habib 'Ali Zain al-'Abideen al-Jifri  - Descendant of The Prophet, Founder of the 'Tabah Foundations for Islamic Studies and Research', lecturer at Dar al Mustafa, Tarim, Yemen
    * Sheikh Amjad Rasheed - Islamic scholar from Tarim, Mufti at Sunnipath.com
    * Sheikh Hamza Karamali - Teacher at Sunnipath.com





 

Prophet Muhammad's Last Sermon

Date delivered: 632 A.C., 9th day of Dhul al Hijjah, 10 A.H. in the 'Uranah valley of Mount Arafat.

After praising, and thanking God, he said: "O People, listen well to my words, for I do not know whether, after this year, I shall ever be amongst you again. Therefore listen to what I am saying to you very carefully and TAKE THESE WORDS TO THOSE WHO COULD NOT BE PRESENT HERE TODAY.

O People, just as you regard this month, this day, this city as Sacred, so regard the life and property of every Muslim as a sacred trust. Return the goods entrusted to you to their rightful owners. Treat others justly so that no one would be unjust to you. Remember that you will indeed meet your LORD, and that HE will indeed reckon your deeds. God has forbidden you to take usury (riba), therefore all riba obligation shall henceforth be waived. Your capital , however, is yours to keep. You will neither inflict nor suffer inequity. God has judged that there shall be no riba and that all the riba due to `Abbas ibn `Abd al Muttalib shall henceforth be waived.

Every right arising out of homicide in pre-Islamic days is henceforth waived and the first such right that I waive is that arising from the murder of Rabi`ah ibn al Harith ibn `Abd al Muttalib.

O Men, the Unbelievers indulge in tampering with the calendar in order to make permissible that which God forbade, and to forbid that which God has made permissible. With God the months are twelve in number. Four of them are sacred, three of these are successive and one occurs singly between the months of Jumada and Sha`ban. Beware of the devil, for the safety of your religion. He has lost all hope that he will ever be able to lead you astray in big things, so beware of following him in small things.

O People, it is true that you have certain rights over your women, but they also have rights over you. Remember that you have taken them as your wives only under God's trust and with His permission. If they abide by your right then to them belongs the right to be fed and clothed in kindness. Treat your women well and be kind to them, for they are your partners and committed helpers. It is your right and they do not make friends with anyone of whom you do not approve, as well as never to be unchaste...

O People, listen to me in earnest, worship God (The One Creator of the Universe), perform your five daily prayers (Salah), fast during the month of Ramadan, and give your financial obligation (zakah) of your wealth. Perform Hajj if you can afford to.

All mankind is from Adam and Eve, an Arab has no superiority over a non-Arab nor a non-Arab has any superiority over an Arab; also a white has no superiority over a black nor a black has any superiority over white except by piety and good action. Learn that every Muslim is a brother to every Muslim and that the Muslims constitute one brotherhood. Nothing shall be legitimate to a Muslim which belongs to a fellow Muslim unless it was given freely and willingly. Do not, therefore, do injustice to yourselves.

Remember, one day you will appear before God (The Creator) and you will answer for your deeds. So beware, do not stray from the path of righteousness after I am gone.

O People, NO PROPHET OR MESSENGER WILL COME AFTER ME AND NO NEW FAITH WILL BE BORN. Reason well, therefore, O People, and understand words which I convey to you. I am leaving you with the Book of God (the QUR'AN*) and my SUNNAH (the life style and the behavioral mode of the Prophet), if you follow them you will never go astray.

All those who listen to me shall pass on my words to others and those to others again; and may the last ones understand my words better than those who listen to me directly. Be my witness O God, that I have conveyed your message to your people.

*The Qur'an: Revealed to Prophet Muhammad during the period from 610-632 AC. The first five verses revealed are: (1) Read in the name of your Lord, Who created. (2) Created man out of a clot that clings (in the womb). (3) Read and your Lord is the Most Bountiful. (4) Who taught by the pen. (5) Taught man that which he knew not.

 

The Last Sermon Confirms the Salient Points from the Quran

 
"Oh Prophet, We have sent you as a witness, news bearer and a warner and as someone who invites people to God by His permission and a shining Lamp" (33:45-46).

Prophet Muhanimad (PBUH) who was sent to mankind as a news bearer and a wamer for he spoke the truth and did not invent something of his own. The purpose of this article is to confirm the statements made by Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) during his farewell address during the last pilgrimage (10 AH).

After praising and thanking God, the Messenger said, "Oh people, listen to my words carefully for I know not whether I will meet you on such an occasion again."

TRUST AND ACCOUNTABILITY

Sermon: "Oh people, just as you regard this month, this day, this city as sacred, so regard the life and property of every Muslim as a sacred trust. Remember that you will indeed appear before God and answer for your actions."

Quran: "If anyone killed a person unless it is for a murder or spreading mischief on earth it would be as it he killed the whole mankind, and if anyone who saved a life, it would be as if he saved the life of whole mankind" (5:32). "Then on that day not a soul will be wronged in the least and you shall but be prepaid in the needs of your past deeds" (36:54).

FINANCIAL OBLIGATIONS

Sermon: "Return the things kept with you as trust (amanah) to their rightful owners."

Quran: "If one of you entrusts (something) the one who has been entrusted with it should hand over his security and he should heed God and not hide any testimony. Anyone who hides it-has a sinfull heart" (2:283).

INTEREST (RIBAH)

Sermon: "All dues of interest shall stand cancelled and you will have only your capital back. Allah has forbidden interest, and I cancel the dues of interest payable to may uncle Abbas ibn Abdul Muttalib."

Quran: "You who believe fear God and write off anything that remains outstanding from lending at interest if you are (true) God and His Messenger If you repent you may retail your principal do not wrong and you will not be wronged" (2:278).

TREATMENT OF WIFE (SPOUSE)

Sermon: "Oh people, your wives have a certain right over you and you have a certain right over them. Treat them well and be kind to them for they are your committed partners and commited helpers.

Quran: "Provide for them the rich according to his income and the poor according to his means, a provision according to the custom. This is an obligation for those who act kindly" (2:236). "Treat them politely even if you dislike them,. Perhaps you dislike something in which God has placed much good" (4:19).

WARNING ABOUT SATAN

Sermon: "Beware of Satan, he is desperate to divert you from the worship of God so beware of him in matters of your way of life."

Quran: "Verily Satan is an enemy to you so treat him as an enemy. He only invites his followers that they may become companions of the blazing fire" (35:6).

BROTHERHOOD

Sermon: "Oh you people listen carefully. All the believers are brothers. You are not allowed to the things belonging to another Muslim unless he give it to you willingly."

Quran: "Believers are but brothers so set things right between your brothers and fear God so that you may find mercy" (49: 1 0).

SUPERIORITY IS ONLY IN PIETY AND SUBMISSION

Sermon: "Oh people, no one is higher than the other unless he is higher in obedience to God. No Arab is superior to a non-Arab except in piety."

Quran:"The most honored among you in the sight of God is (he who is) the most righteous of you and God has full knowledge and is will acquainted (with all things)" (49:134). "Who can be better in religion than he who submits his whose self to God, does good and follows the ways of abraham for God did take Abraham for a friend" (4:125).

IN ORDER TO BE SUCCESSFUL WE MUST OBEY BOTH GOD AND HIS MESSENGER

Sermon: "Oh people, reflect on my words. I leave behind me two things, the Quran and my example and if you follow these, you will not fail."

Quran: "And obey God and the Messenger so that you may receive mercy" (3:132).

OBSERVE THE PILLARS OF ISLAM

Sermon: "Listen to me carefully. Worship God and offer prescribed prayer, observe fasting in the month of Ramadan and pay the poor-due."

Quran: "And establish the prescribed prayer, practice regular charity and bow down with those who bow down" (2:43). "Oh you who believe, fasting is prescribed to you as it was prescribed to those before you that you may learn self-restraint" (2:183).

DUTIES REGARDING THOSE WORKING UNDER US

Sermon: "Oh people, be mindful of those who work under you. Feed and clothe them as you feed and clothe yourselves."

Quran: "Act kindly just as God treated you kindly" (28:77). "God has favored some of you over their provisions to those whom their right hand controls so that they become equal (partners) in it. Would they thus disclaim God's favor" (16:71).

MUHAMMAD WAS THE LAST PROPHET

Sermon: "Oh people, no prophet or messenger will come after me and no new faith will emerge."

Quran: "Muhammad is not the father of any of you men but he is God's Messenger and the Seal of Prophets. God is aware of everything" (33:40).

OUR DUTY IS TO SPREAD THE MESSAGE OF THE PROPHET (QURAN)

Sermon: "All those who listen to me shall pass on my words to others and those to others again (and people did).

Quran: "Oh Messenger, communicate whatever has been sent down to you by your Lord. If you do not do so, you will not have conveyed his message" (5:67).

Sermon: Have I conveyed the Message of God to you? asked the Prophet facing towards the heavens. The audience answered in one voice, "You have, God is the witness."

Quran: As the Messenger finished the following revelation came to him, "Today I have perfected your religion for you, completed my favors upon you and have chosen for you Islam as the way of life for you" (5:3).

 

Here is my response to Cowasjee articles:

(July 13, 2008)
(July 6, 2008)

A little bit of objectivity…back at you Sir!


Dear Cowasjee,

May I begin by saying that I am a fan of your writing prowess and admire your satire as you frame your subject by remarkable penmanship.

 I am offended by you wasting time on someone who did not help Pakistan in it's worst time of crisis. Your adulation for  Sam Manekshaw, is unwarranted and unappreciated. How well you knew this gentleman and up close, that you felt compelled to shower him with praise, worthy of your column?

May I ask you to examine your actions with the famous outburst of patriotism:

'You are with us or against us"

It is the litmus test of your sincerity. In which category will you drop him? Then kindly understand the hurt any nationalist will feel after dousing fuel of your insensitivity. 

I disagree with your assessment in the break up of Pakistan after just 24 years in play. Nations are not born overnight. Bengalis had deep seeded resentments. Right from the beginning when they were not given their language, self governess, etc. etc.; so, just the three stooges alone were not the only scourge.

The state in which crumbling Pakistan is in now, all the populace and corrupt leadership collectively bear the responsibility of its misfortune.
   
Your tribute to the FM is unjustified and unwarranted and has shown your natural biased and prejudice because of your own religious ilk.  

Under your admired enemy military leadership, Kashmir's never gave up their rights and efforts of seeking independence. How would you paint him in that light?

In case of then East Pakistan the poor suffering Bengalis were eager to get help; aid and abetted him for securing freedom.  He could not have achieve this feat back in 1965.

If Sam Manekshaw,  was considered an enemy of State you have then painted your self in a frame with a blemish of your own doing.

I will ask you to reexamine your chest drawer and pump out a fresh puff and acknowledge; an error of judgment (which is going to be hard) and put out a nice note.

I will appreciate your comments.

Regards,


Nadeem Naik

July 27, 2008



 
Shia


Shia, meaning follower, has been used in Qur'an in singular or plural forms with both positive [Qur'an 37:83] and negative [Qur'an 54:51] connotations.

"Shia" is the short form of the historic phrase šīʿat ʿAlī (شيعة علي), meaning "the followers of Ali" or "the faction of Ali". Both Shia and Sunni sources trace the term to the years preceding the death of Muhammad.

Shi'a Islam (Shī‘a Arabic: شيعة; šīʿa is collective; Shī‘i, šīʿi, is singular), is the second largest denomination of Islam, after Sunni Islam. Shi'a Muslims, though a minority in the Muslim world, constitute the majority of the populations in Iran, Azerbaijan, Bahrain and Iraq, as well as a plurality in Lebanon. They also constitute over 25% of the population in Yemen, Kuwait, Albania, Turkey and Pakistan. There are an estimated 130 to 190 million Shi'a, 10-15% of the world's Muslim population.

The Shi'a adhere to the teachings of the final Prophet of Islam, Muhammad, and in contrast to other Muslims, believe that his family, the Ahl al-Bayt (the People of the House), including his descendants known as Imams, have special spiritual and political rule over the community. Unlike Sunni Muslims, the Shi'a believe that Ali ibn Abi Talib, Muhammad's cousin and husband of his daughter, Fatimah, was the true successor to Muhammad who was appointed by God and his prophet, and thus reject the legitimacy of the first three Rashidun caliphs.

The Shi'a faith is vast and inclusive of many different groups. There are various Shi'a theological beliefs, schools of jurisprudence, philosophical beliefs, and spiritual movements. Shi'a Islam embodies a completely independent system of religious interpretation and political authority in the Muslim world. The Shi'a identity emerged soon after the death of Muhammad, and Shi'a theology was formulated in the second century and the first Shi'a governments and societies were established by the end of the third century.

Shi'a Islam is divided into three branches. The largest and best known are the Twelver (اثنا عشرية iṯnāʿašariyya) which forms a majority of the population in Iran, Azerbaijan, Bahrain and Iraq. The term Shi'a often refers to Twelver Shi'a only. Other smaller branches include the Ismaili and Zaidi, who dispute the Twelver lineage of Imams and beliefs.

Shia Muslims believe that the descendants from Muhammad PBUH through his daughter Fatimah Zahra and his son-in-law Ali (the Imams) were the best source of knowledge about the Qur'an and Islam, the most trusted carriers and protectors of Muhammad's PBUH Sunnah (traditions), and the most worthy of emulation.

In particular, Shia Muslims recognize the succession of Ali (Muhammad's PBUH cousin, son-in-law, the first man to accept Islam — second only to Muhammad's PBUH wife Khadija — the male head of the Ahl al-Bayt or "people of the [Prophet's] house") and the father of Muhammad's PBUH only bloodline as opposed to that of the caliphate recognized by Sunni Muslims. Shia Muslims believe that Ali was appointed successor by Muhammad's PBUH direct order on many occasions, and that he is therefore the rightful leader of the Muslim faith.

This difference between following either the Ahl al-Bayt (Muhammad's PBUH family and descendants) or the Caliph Abu Bakr has shaped Shia and non-Shia views on some of the Qur'an, the Hadith (narrations from Muhammad PBUH) and other areas of Islam. For instance, the collection of Hadith venerated by Shia Muslims is centered on narrations by members of the Ahl al-Bayt and their supporters, while some Hadith by narrators not belonging to or supporting the Ahl al-Bayt are not included (those of Abu Huraira, for example). Ali was the third successor to Abu Bakr and, for the Shia, the first divinely sanctioned "Imam," or successor of Muhammad PBUH. The seminal event in Shia history is the martyrdom in 680 CE at the Battle of Karbala of Ali's son Hussein, who led an non-allegiance movement against the defiant caliph (71 of Hussein's followers were killed as well). Hussein came to symbolize resistance to tyranny.

Regardless of the dispute about the Caliphate, the Shia recognize the religious authority of the Imams.

There are two interpretations about the emergence of Shia. One of them emphasizes the political struggle about the succession of Muhammad after his death and especially during the First Fitna. The other one emphasizes on different interpretation of Islam which led to different understanding about the role of caliphs and ulamas. Hossein Nasr has quoted:

Shi'ism was not brought into existence only by the question of the political succession to Muhammad PBUH as so many Western works claim (although this question was of course of great importance). The problem of political succession may be said to be the element that crystallized the Shi'ites into a distinct group, and political suppression in later periods, especially the martyrdom of Imam Husayn-upon whom be peace-only accentuated this tendency of the Shi'ites to see themselves as a separate community within the Islamic world. The principal cause of the coming into being of Shi'ism, however, lies in the fact that this possibility existed within the Islamic revelation itself and so had to be realized. Inasmuch as there were exoteric [Zaheri] and esoteric [Bateni] interpretations from the very beginning, from which developed the schools (madhhab) of the Sharia and Sufism in the Sunni world, there also had to be an interpretation of Islam which would combine these elements in a single whole. This possibility was realized in Shi'ism, for which the Imam is the person in whom these two aspects of traditional authority are united and in whom the religious life is marked by a sense of tragedy and martyrdom... Hence the question which arose was not so much who should be the successor of Muhammad PBUH as what the function and qualifications of such a person would be.

Ahl al-Kisa

In Shi'a Islam, the term Ahl al-Kisa, meaning People of the Cloak, refers to the founder of Islam Muhammad PBUH, his daughter Fatimah, his cousin and son-in-law Ali, and his two grandsons Hasan and Husayn. Its origin is in the Hadith of the Event of the Cloak and the Hadith of Mubahala, hadith which are both accepted as authentic by Sunni and Shi'a Muslims, with differences only in interpretation. It is one of the foundations of the Shi'a conception of Imamate, which states that a male descendant of Muhammad PBUH has special rule over the Muslim community. The Ahl al-Kisa along with the Imams form the Shi'a definition of Ahl al-Bayt, a term used to designate the family of Muhammad.

The three branches of Shi'a differ on the nature of the Ahl al-Kisa and Imams. The two largest branches, the Twelver and the Ismaili, consider them to be in a state of ismah, meaning infallibility, a belief originating from the verse of purification in the Muslim holy book, the Qur'an. In contrast, the third branch, the Zaidi, view them only as political figures with the duty to lead revolts against corrupt rulers and governments.

The Twelve Imams

The Twelve Imams are the spiritual and political successors to Muhammad, PBUH the Prophet of Islam, in the Twelver or Ithna Ashariya branch of Shia Islam. According to the theology of Twelvers, the successor of Muhammad PBUH is an infallible human individual who not only rules over the community with justice, but also is able to keep and interpret the Divine Law and its esoteric meaning. The Prophet and Imams' words and deeds are a guide and model for the community to follow; as a result, they must be free from error and sin, and must be chosen by divine decree, or nass, through the Prophet.

It is believed in Shi'ism that Aql, a divine wisdom, was the source of the souls of the Prophets and Imams and gave them esoteric knowledge, called Hikmah, and that their sufferings were a means of divine grace to their devotees. Although the Imam was not the recipient of a divine revelation, but has close relationship with God, through which God guides him, and the imam in turn guides the people. Because God would not leave the world without some sort of divine guidance for humanity.

There is always an Imam of the Age, who is the divinely appointed authority on all matters of faith and law in the Muslim community. Ali was the first Imam of this line, and in the Twelvers' view, the rightful successor to the Prophet of Islam, followed by male descendants of Muhammad PBUH through his daughter Fatimah Zahra. Each Imam was the son of the previous Imam, with the exception of Husayn ibn Ali, who was the brother of Hasan ibn Ali. The twelfth and final Imam is Muhammad al-Mahdi, who is believed by the Twelvers to be currently alive, and in hiding.

   1. Ali ibn Abu Talib (600–661), also known as Ali, Amir ul-Mu'mineen (commander of the faithful), also known as Shah-e Mardan Ali (King of men)
   2. Hasan ibn Ali (625–669), also known as Hasan al Mujtaba
   3. Husayn ibn Ali (626–680), also known as Husayn al Shaheed, also known as Sah Hüseyin
   4. Ali ibn Husayn (658–713), also known as Ali Zainul Abideen
   5. Muhammad ibn Ali (676–743), also known as Muhammad al Baqir
   6. Jafar ibn Muhammad (703–765), also known as Ja'far as Sadiq
   7. Musa ibn Jafar (745–799), also known as Musa al Kadhim
   8. Ali ibn Musa (765–818), also known as Ali ar Ridha
   9. Muhammad ibn Ali (810–835), also known as Muhammad al Jawad (Muhammad at Taqi), also known as Taki
  10. Ali ibn Muhamad (827–868), also known as Ali al-Hadi, also known as Naki
  11. Hasan ibn Ali (846–874), also known as Hasan al Askari
  12. Muhammad ibn Hasan (868–?), also known as Hujjat ibn al Hasan, also known as Mahdi


 

Who’s In charge?


Who is the fool? The one being fooled and/or fooled by. Pakistan state of being has never changed. Despotic rulers come and go. Politics and governess never changes.

Incompetence, egocentricity, avarice and improbity rules the day. We are a broken Nation -Pakistan of August 14, 1947 does not exist- and no clear vision of future in sight. How long this state of affairs can last? It is ready for another melt down.

Asif Zardari and Nawaz Sharif are no body -supernumeraries. They are not elected people representative. Yet they act like one. They are not within the walls of Parliament. Yet they are running the show. They preach democracy. But themselves, they practice not.  They want to impeach the President through the Parliamentary process but dictate through street politics. Who’s in charge? What a farce!

The puppet, hen-pecked Prime minister is totally oblivious of the situation and they are calling the shots. Who is a fool and who are they fooling. Is this a way western governments are run? Their spineless and toothless party apparatchik  serve  their lords without amoral compunction.

President Musharraf will face his day of reckoning. He should and must face all the wrongs he has committed. In his own admission he is guilty of wrong doing. But none should be allowed to annihilate the law and operate outside the legal infrastructure.  If he is given a safe passage all involved are guilty of treason. Then shame on them for committing a peccancy against the poor and helpless Pakistanis.

What is the message we are telegraphing inside and outside the border, that non retiring politician and dictators are like leeches.  Insatiable and garrulous are their genetic predisposition. And none has interest of the Nation in mind.

No more remote control governess of the country. If Zardari and Nawaz are not stopped from operating outside the confines of the parliament then we are setting an another example of impending total disaster. Similarly, Army needs to stop meddling with civil governess. There should be a term limit of party chiefs and the publicly held Offices. Period.

The removal of the president should be made in orderly fashion. Let no new act of civil governess be disgraceful, if we want to save what ever is left of teetering totting Pakistan or to hell in a hand basket.

Pakistan cannot afford  people in leadership positions to abuse and run the country at will. In order to save Pakistan we will have to respect the institutions. Zardari and Nawaz would be in order if there was no elected constituted Parliament. Both of them need to calm down and not meddle in running of the country. Their henchmen in the Parliament should do the bidding.

If Zardari and Nawaz expects Army not to meddle in country’s civil administration, then as an outsider their conduct should be no different. This is the reason why Pakistan is in mess and the turmoil will never cease unless, we change the way how government is run.

Remember, donning Army uniform does not change the nationality or the culture. Why should Army Generals of Pakistan act any different than Politicians?

Let Civility Begin.

Long Live Pakistan!

Nadeem Naik
http://nadeemnaik.com/
Ausgust 14, 2008


 
Deobandi


Tenets

Deobandi thought has five main principles, which are:

  1. Tawhid: Abrahamic Monotheism (of God); no one shares His attributes.
  2. Sunna: Following the methodology of Muhammad.
  3. Ħubbus-Sahaba: Following the methodology of companions of Muhammad.
  4. Taqlid wal-Ittibā: Giving preference to the jurisprudence of one of the earliest jurists of Islam over that of later jurists.
  5. Jihād fī Sabīlil-Lāh: Doing Jihād (Striving for the good, in the name of God)

 

History

The Deobandi movement developed as a reaction to the British colonialism in India, which was believed by Muslim theologians to be corrupting Islam. Fearing its consequences, a group of Indian Hanafi Islamic scholars (Ulama) led by Qasim Nanotwi founded an Islamic seminary known as Darul Uloom Deoband. It is here that the Islamic revivalist and anti-British ideology of the Deobandis began to develop. Gradually, through organisations such as Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind and Tablighi Jamaat, their influence began to spread, and hundreds of schools and Darul Ulooms affiliated with Deoband sprouted. Notable Hanafi seminaries of Deobandi school include: Nadwatul-Ulama in Lucknow, India and Darul Uloom Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan.

Early Deobandi scholars include Nanotwi, Rasheed Ahmad Gangohi, Husain Ahmed Madani, Mawlana Ashraf Ali Thanawi, Ilyas Khandhelawi, Ubaidullah Sindhi, and Muhammad Zakariya al-Kandahlawi.

Present

Prominent Scholars

Prominent Deobandi scholars today include Maulana Saalim Qasmi, Mufti Taqi Uthmani, Mufti Ebrahim Desai, Grand Mufti Muhammad Rafi Usmani,Hadhrat Hakim Akhtar and Tariq Jamil.

Prominent Members

Some famous people who have joined the Tablighi Jamaat (a movement founded by Deoband Maulana Muhammad Ilyas) are Pakistani cricketers Shahid Afridi, Inzamam ul Haq, Mohammad Yousuf, Saqlain Mushtaq, former Pakistani cricketers Saeed Anwar and Salim Malik and famous pop star Junaid Jamshaid.

The founding father of Deobandi movement were very much influenced by the Wahabi movement which originated from Najd in 17th Century. Shah Ismail Dehalvi translated the Kitab Ut Tawheed written by Muhammed Ibnul Wahab Najdi into Urdu which he called Taqwiyat Ul Imaan.

Deobandi movement is compromise between the Sufi, and Wahabi, teachings, on the issues of aqeedah they have completely sided with the Wahabis, opposing the traditional Barelwis, the only difference between the Wahabis and Deobandis which is apparent is in connection with Ashri and Maturidi creeds, Deobandis ascribe to either Ashri or Maturidi creeds where as Wahabis adhere to the literal meaning, Allah having; HAND, SHIN, EYES, THROWN, ETC ... Deobandis also differ with Wahabis on few other practices, such as Raf Ul Yadain, Fath Khalf Ul Imam, Taqleed of a Imam, other than these differences there is nothing else singnificant enough to mention which distinguishes them from one and other. Aside from Deobandis nominal claim that they also fallow the four Sufi paths, Qadri, Soharwadi, Chishti, Naqhsbandi.

Controversy and Criticism

Taliban

The Taliban are said to follow the teachings of the Deoband school, although some journalists, such as Ahmed Rashid, claim they follow a simplistic version of the school's teachings.

Conflict with Barelwis

Some Barelwi leaders have pronounced takfir on Deobandis for writings deemed to be against the Quran and Sunnah. In May 2001, riots broke out in Pakistan after the assassination of a leader of the Barelwi movement by Sipah Sahaba Pakistan, a Deoband-affiliated group.Barelwi activists have forcibly taken control of several dozen Deobandi and Salafi Mosques between 1992 and 2002, with methods that have often sparked violence.

Salafi Criticism

Salafi scholars criticise Deobandis for:

  • Frequent ta'weel of the attributes of Allah.
  • Not considering the complete Qur'an to be the Speech of Allah.
  • Acknowledgment of tawassul, which is considered shirk by Salafis.
  • Belief in the eternal life of Muhammad[17] which, according to Salafi scholars, belongs only to Allah, and thus constitutes shirk, besides contradicting the verse from the Qur'an: "Verily you, (O Muhammad) will die and they will die too".
  • Denying that Iman is both belief and action, maintaining that it is simply "affirmation of the tongue and confirmation of the heart" and that "righteous actions are not a part of Iman because actions increase and decrease"; and denying that Iman increases and decreases, against the statements in the Qur'an: "And when His verses are recited to them they increase their Iman". and "And the believers may increase in Iman"

Cash for fatwas scandal

Following a sting operation, StarTV Channel showed clerics belonging to Darul Uloom Deoband demanding and receiving cash for fatwas. The fatwas issued allegedly mandated that Muslims are not allowed to use credit cards, double beds or camera-equipped cell phones; that Muslims should not act in films, donate their organs or teach their children English; and that Muslim girls should not wear jeans.

The seminary's vice chancellor, Marghoobur Rehman, said cleric Mufti Habibur Rehman was suspended from the fatwa department on Sunday after the television report, according to a Press Trust of India news agency report.

The vice chancellor said a committee would investigate the matter and, if found guilty, the cleric would be sacked.


 
Maliki


The Maliki madhab (Arabic مالكي) is one of the four schools of Fiqh or religious law within Sunni Islam. It is the third-largest of the four schools, followed by approximately 15% of Muslims, mostly in North Africa and West Africa.

Madhabs are not sects, but rather schools of jurisprudence.The other three schools of thought are Shafi, Hanafi, and Hanbali.

The Maliki school derives from the work of Imam Malik. It differs from the three other schools of law most notably in the sources it uses for derivation of rulings. All four schools use the Qur'an as primary source, followed by the sunnah of Muhammad transmitted as hadith (sayings), ijma (consensus of the scholars) and Qiyas (analogy); the Maliki school, in addition, uses the practice of the people of Medina as a source.

This source, according to Malik, sometimes supersedes hadith, because the practice of the people of Medina was considered "living sunnah," in as much as Muhammad migrated there, lived there and died there, and most of his companions lived there during his life and after his death. The result is a much more limited reliance upon hadith than is found in other schools.

Imam Malik was particularly scrupulous about authenticating his sources when he did appeal to them, however, and his comparatively small collection of ahadith, known as Al-Muwatta ("The Approved"), is highly regarded. Malik is said to have explained the title as follows: "I showed my book to seventy jurists of Medina, and every single one of them approved me for it, so I named it ‘The Approved’."

Imam Malik

Malik was once sentenced to a lashing by the caliph Abu Ja`far al-Mansur for narrating a hadith to the effect that a divorce obtained under coercion was invalid. The hadith in question had momentous political implications, because it supported those who argued that the caliph's authority was similarly invalid -- because it, too, had been secured by means of coercion.

Eventually, Malik was paraded through the streets in disgrace and ordered to insult himself publicly. He is reported to have said: "Whoever knows me, knows me; whoever does not know me, my name is Malik ibn Anas, and I say: The divorce of the coerced is null and void!" When the incident was reported to the governor of Medina (who was also the cousin of al-Mansur), Malik was ordered released.

Differences in prayer from other madhabs

There are slight differences in the preferred methods of salaat, or prayer, in the Maliki school.

  • It is said to leave the hands to dangle at one's sides during prayer, though this was confused during the time when Imam Malik had damaged his back; however it is more correct, and a common Sunni practice of joining the hands beneath the chest, right hand over left, does not invalidate the prayer, since leaving the hands down is just a recommended act (in fact, several famous Maliki scholars, including Qadi Iyad, were of the opinion that the hands should in fact be folded across the chest like other Sunnis do).
  • Looking straight ahead at eye-level (i.e. literally "facing" the Ka'aba) during the standing and sitting parts of the prayer, rather than looking down towards the place of prostration
  • Not reciting any supplications before the Fatihah in obligatory prayers (the Bismillah, reciting "in the name of Allah, the most Gracious, the most Merciful" before the Fatihah, is frowned upon in obligatory prayers).
  • Turning the right-handed fist is on its side (such that smallest finger is touching the thigh) and moving the right index finger back and forth horizontally during the sitting parts of the prayers
  • Saying the ending tasleem only once ("As-salaamu 'alaykum" while turning the head to the right); anything more is frowned upon (except for followers behind an imam, who are recommended to face the front again and say "wa 'alaykum as-salaam" to the imam and, if anyone is to their left, turn their head to the left and say "wa 'alaykum as-salaam" to the person on their left).

Notable Malikis

  • Imam Malik ibn Anas (714 - 796), Sunni jurist
  • Ibn Battuta (February 24, 1304 - 1377), explorer
  • Ibn Khaldun (1332/ah732 - 1406/ah808) Scholar, historian and author of the Muqaddimah
  • Abdullah ibn Abi Zayd al-Qayrawani (310/922 - 386/996) Sunni jurist and author of the Risala a standard work in Maliki law
  • Sahnun ibn Said (160/776-7 - 240/854-5) Sunni jurist and author of the Mudawana one of the most important works in Maliki law
  • ibn Rushd (Averroes) Philosopher and scholar
  • Qadi Iyad ibn Musa al- Yahsubi (d. 1149). Author of ash-Shifa
  • Muhammad Alawi al-Maliki (1947 - 2004) Scholar
  • Shihab al-Din al-Qarafi (d. 1285) Moroccan jurist and author who lived in Egypt
  • Ibn Abd-al-Barr
  • Khalil ibn Ishaq al-Jundi
  • Sherman Jackson
  • Hamza Yusuf
  • Sidi Umar Faruq Abdallah
  • Shaykh as-Sayyid Muhammad Alawi al-Maliki
  • Shaykh Abdalqadir as-Sufi
  • Muhammad I ibn Yusuf Ibn Nasr Ibn al-Ahmar ruler of Granada (1237-73)
  • Yusuf ibn Tashfin one of the prominent leaders of the Almoravid dynasty
  • Omar al-Mukhtar

 


Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. Sunni Islam is also referred to as Sunnism or as Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l-Jamā‘h (Arabic: أهل السنة والجماعة) (people of the example (of Muhammad) and the community), or Ahl as-Sunnah (Arabic: أهل السنة ) for short. The word Sunni comes from the word Sunnah (Arabic : سنة ), which means the words and actions  or example of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

Historically, Sunni Islam has often been defined only in contrast with other denominations or schools of thought, such as Shia Islam, Mu'tazila and others, considering itself to be the orthodox form of Islam. As such, a case is sometimes made that Sunnism is as old as Islam itself or at least dates back to the first civil war in Islam from 656 to 661 CE. However, in terms of doctrine and theology, and in the sense of considering itself a separate denomination, Sunni Islam is younger than that, making it somewhat misleading to talk about Sunnites in a 7th century CE context.

Sunni Islam was under the authority of the Caliph from Muhammad's death in 632 CE until the abolition of the caliphate by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk in 1924. Since then, no central international authority exists; many countries have a Grand Mufti or other official who holds the highest religious authority in the country. However, during all of Islam's history, independent religious scholars - the ulama - have held great influence in religious matters. During the first centuries of Islam, when the Umayyad and Abbasid caliphs were the worldly rulers of the Muslim world as well as the highest religious authorities of Sunni Islam, this led to some power struggles between the caliphate and the ulama. As the worldly power of the caliphate declined from the 9th and 10th century onwards, and as the religious law became more codified and exhaustive due to the efforts of the ulama, the caliphate's religious influence decreased as well.

Sunni schools of law (Madhhab)

Islamic law is known as the Shari'ah. The Shari'ah is based on the Qur'an and the Sunnah, and those who ascribe to different interpretations of the law can often be found attending the same mosques.

The four major Sunni schools of law are as follows, and their respective founders:

  • Hanafi School (founded by Abu Hanifa)

Abu Hanifa (d. 767), was the founder of the Hanafi school. He was born circa 702 in Kufa, Iraq. Muslims of Bangladesh, Pakistan, India, Afghanistan, Central Asia, Iraq, Turkey, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria and Palestine follow this school.

  • Maliki School (founded by Malik ibn Anas)

Malik ibn Anas(d. 795) developed his ideas in Medina, where he allegedly knew one of the last surviving companions of the Prophet. His doctrine is recorded in the Muwatta which has been adopted by most Muslims of Africa except in Lower Egypt, Zanzibar and South Africa. The Maliki legal school is the branch of Sunni that dominates most of the Muslim areas of Africa, except Egypt and the Horn of Africa.

  • Shafi'i School (founded by Muhammad ibn Idris ash-Shafi`i)

Al-Shafi'i (d. 820) was considered a moderate in most areas. He taught in Iraq and then in Egypt. Muslims in Indonesia, Lower Egypt, Malaysia, Somalia and Yemen follow this school. Al-Shafi'i placed great emphasis on the Sunnah of the Prophet, as embodied in the Hadith, as a source of the Shari'ah.

  • Hanbali School (founded by Ahmad bin Hanbal)

Ahmad ibn Hanbal (d. 855) was born in Baghdad. He learned extensively from al-Shafi'i. Despite persecution, he held to the doctrine that the Qur'an was uncreated. This school of law is followed primarily in the Arabian Peninsula.

These four schools are somewhat different from each other, but Sunni Muslims generally consider them all equally valid. There are other Sunni schools of law. However, many are followed by only small numbers of people and are relatively unknown due to the popularity of the four major schools; also, many have died out or were not sufficiently recorded by their followers to survive.

Interpreting the Shari'ah to derive specific rulings (such as how to pray) is known as fiqh, which literally means understanding. A madhhab is a particular tradition of interpreting fiqh. These schools focus on specific evidence (Shafi'i and Hanbali) or general principles (Hanafi and Maliki) derived from specific evidences. The schools were started by eminent Muslim scholars in the first four centuries of Islam. As these schools represent clearly spelled out methodologies for interpreting the Shari'aa, there has been little change in the methodology per se. However, as the social and economic environment changes, new fiqh rulings are being made. For example, when tobacco appeared it was declared as 'disliked' because of its smell. When medical information showed that smoking was dangerous, that ruling was changed to 'forbidden'. Current fiqh issues include things like downloading pirated software and cloning. The consensus is that the Shari'ah does not change but fiqh rulings change all the time.

A madhhab is not to be confused with a religious sect. There may be scholars representing all four madhhabs living in larger Muslim communities, and it is up to those who consult them to decide which school they prefer.

Many Sunnis advocate that a Muslim should choose a single madhhab and follow it in all matters. However, rulings from another madhhab are considered acceptable as dispensations (rukhsa) in exceptional circumstances. Some Sunnis, however, do not follow any madhhab,. Indeed, some Salafis reject strict adherence to any particular school of thought, preferring to use the Qur'an and the Sunnah alone as the primary sources of Islamic law.

Sunni theological traditions

Some Islamic scholars faced questions that they felt were not specifically answered in the Qur'an, especially questions with regard to philosophical conundra like the nature of God, the existence of human free will, or the eternal existence of the Qur'an. Various schools of theology and philosophy developed to answer these questions, each claiming to be true to the Qur'an and the Muslim tradition (sunnah). Among Sunnites, the following were the dominant traditions:

  • Ash'ari, founded by Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari (873–935). This theology was embraced by Muslim scholars such as al-Ghazali.
    • Ash'ariyyah theology stresses divine revelation over human reason. Ethics, they say, cannot be derived from human reason: God's commands, as revealed in the Qur'an and the practice of Muhammad and his companions (the sunnah, as recorded in the traditions, or hadith), are the source of all morality.
    • Regarding the nature of God and the divine attributes, the Ash'ari rejected the Mu'tazilite position that all Qur'anic references to God as having physical attributes (that is, a body) were metaphorical. Ash'aris insisted that these attributes were "true", since the Qur'an could not be in error, but that they were not to be understood as implying a crude anthropomorphism.
    • Ash'aris tend to stress divine omnipotence over human free will. They believe that the Qur'an is eternal and uncreated.
  • Maturidiyyah, founded by Abu Mansur al-Maturidi (d. 944). Maturidiyyah was a minority tradition until it was accepted by the Turkish tribes of Central Asia (previously they had been Ashari and followers of the Shafi school, it was only later on migration into Anatolia that they became Hanafi and followers of the Maturidi creed). One of the tribes, the Seljuk Turks, migrated to Turkey, where later the Ottoman Empire was established.Their preferred school of law achieved a new prominence throughout their whole empire although it continued to be followed almost exclusively by followers of the Hanafi school while followers of the Shafi, Maliki, and Hanbali schools within the empire followed the Ashari school. Thus, wherever can be found Hanafi followers, there can be found the Maturidi creed.
    • Maturidiyyah argue that knowledge of God's existence can be derived through reason.
  • Athariyyah (meaning Textualist) or Hanbali. No specific founder, but Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal played a key historic role in keeping this school alive.
    • This school differs with the Ash'ariyyah in understanding the names and attributes of God, but rather affirms all of God's names and attributes as they are found in the Qur'an and Sunnah (prophetic traditions), with the disclaimer that the "how" of the attribute is not known. They say that God is as He described Himself "in a way befitting of His majesty." Thus, regarding verses where God is described as having a yad (hand) or wajh (face), the textualists say that God is exactly as He described himself in a way befitting of His majesty, without inquiring as to the "how" of these attributes.
    • The Athariyyah still believe that God does not resemble His creation in any way, as this is also found in the texts. Thus, in the Athari creed, it is still prohibited to imagine an image of God in any way. The Athariyyah say that the yad" (hand) of God is "unlike any other yad" (since God does not resemble His creation in any way) and prohibit imagining what God would be like, even though this attribute of a yad is still affirmed.
    • This is the view of Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal who said: "The hadiths (regarding the attributes of Allah) should be left as they are... We affirm them, and we do not make any similitude for them. This is what has been agreed upon by the scholars.

Sunni view of hadith

The Qur'an as we have it today was compiled by Muhammad's companions (Sahaba) in approximately 650, and is accepted by all Muslim denominations. However, there were many matters of belief and daily life that were not directly prescribed in the Qur'an, but were actions that were observed by the prophet and the community. Later generations sought out oral traditions regarding the early history of Islam, and the practice of Muhammad and his first followers, and wrote them down so that they might be preserved. These recorded oral traditions are called hadith. Muslim scholars sifted through the hadith and evaluated the chain of narration of each tradition, scrutinizing the trustworthiness of the narrators and judging the strength of each hadith accordingly. Most Sunni accept the hadith collections of Bukhari and Muslim as the most authentic (sahih, or correct), and grant a lesser status to the collections of other recorders. There are, however, four other collections of hadith that are also held in particular reverence by Sunni Muslims making a total of six:

  • Sahih al-Bukhari
  • Sahih Muslim
  • Sunan an-Nasa'ii
  • Sunan Abu Dawud
  • Sunan at-Tirmidhi
  • Sunan ibn Majah

There are also other collections of hadith which, although less well-known, are still thought to contain many authentic hadith and are frequently used by specialists. Examples of these collections include:

  • Muwatta of Imam Malik
  • Musnad of Ahmad ibn Hanbal
  • Sahih Ibn Khuzaima
  • Sahih Ibn Hibban
  • Mustadrak of Al Haakim
  • Musannaf of Abd al-Razzaq


 


The Hanafi (Arabic حنفي) school is the oldest of the four schools of thought (Madhha) or jurisprudence (Fiqh) within Sunni Islam. The Hanafi madhhab is named after its founder, Abu Hanifa an-Nu‘man ibn Thābit (Arabic: النعمان بن ثابت‎) (699 - 767).

Among the four established Sunni schools of legal thought in Islam, the Hanafi school is the oldest, but it is generally regarded as the most liberal and as the one which puts the most emphasis on human reason. The Hanafi school also has the most followers among the four major Sunni schools. (Both the Ottoman Empire and the Mughal Empire were Hanafi so the Hanafi school is still widespread in their former lands). The other three schools of thought are Shafi, Maliki, and Hanbali. Today, the Hanafi school is predominant among the Sunnis of Central Asia, Afghanistan, Pakistan and the most of the Indian Subcontinent, China, Southeast Asia, as well as in Iraq, Turkey, Albania, the Balkans and the Caucasus.

According to Abdalhaqq Bewley:

"The madhhab of Imam Abu Hanifa, may Allah cover him with mercy, was formulated in Iraq, a very different environment to that of Madina al-Munawwara where the deen had been laid down, and the number of Companions who had settled there had been too few to allow a complete picture of the Sunna to emerge. For this reason Hanafi methodology involved the logical process of examining the Book and all available knowledge of the Sunna and then finding an example in them analogous to the particular case under review so that Allah's deen could be properly applied in the new situation. It thus entails the use of reason in the examination of the Book and Sunna so as to extrapolate the judgements necessary for the implementation of Islam in a new environment. It represents in essence, therefore, within the strict compass of rigorous legal and inductive precepts, the adaptation of the living and powerful deen to a new situation in order to enable it take root and flourish in fresh soil. This made it an ideal legal tool for the central governance of widely varied populations which is why we find it in Turkey as the legacy of the Uthmaniyya Khilafa and in the sub-continent where it is inherited from the Moghul empire."

Some distinctive opinions of Abu Hanifa and the Hanafi School

  • Abu Hanifah held that "wine" (the fermented juice of dates or grapes) was absolutely prohibited. But he thought it was permissible to drink small non-intoxicating amounts of other alcoholic beverages (e.g. made from honey or grains). Later Hanafi scholars tend to rule that all alcoholic beverages are prohibited regardless of source.
  • It is prohibited or disliked to eat some forms of non-fish seafood based on the hadith of the prophet Muhammad: "Two types of dead meat and two types of blood have been made lawful for your consumption [without being slaughtered]: fish and locust, liver and spleen". (Reported by Ahmad and Ibn Majah,).
  • Except during Hajj every salah needs to be made in its regular time. It is not valid to combine prayers, even when travelling.
  • A sixth daily Witr prayer is wajib or "required".
  • Abu Hanifah held that "the Quran" consists of the meaning of the text and so in the daily prayers it was permissible to recite "the Quran" in any language unconditionally. Later Hanafis only held that this was permissible if the person praying was unable to recite the Quran in Arabic.
  • Bleeding can break one's wudu.
  • Abu Hanifah and the Maturidis say that "Faith neither increases nor decreases" and that "Actions are not a part of faith".

Despite these differences, there is little or no animosity between the four schools of religious law within Sunni Islam. Instead there is a cross-pollination of ideas and debate that serves to refine each school's understanding of Islam.

Notable Hanafis

  • Abu Hanifah
  • Abu Yusuf
  • Muhammad al-Shaybani
  • Abu Mansur Al Maturidi
  • Al-Kawthari
  • Ibn Abidin
  • Ahmad Sirhindi
  • Baha-ud-Din Naqshband Bukhari
  • Jalal ad-Din Muhammad Rumi
  • Shah Waliullah
  • Fethullah Gülen
  • Imam Ahmed Raza Khan
  • Riaz Ahmed Gohar Shahi
  • Muhammad al-Yaqoubi
  • Naeemuddeen muradabadi
  • Muhammad Zakariya al-Kandahlawi
  • Shaykh Nazim al-Qubrusi
  • Ahmad yar khan naeemi
  • Ilyas Attar Qadri
  • Ahmed saeed kazmi
  • Mufti Amzad ali Azmi
  • Molana Sardar Ahmed
  • Shibli Nomani
  • Ibn Abi al-Izz
  • Mufti Tahir Mahmood Kiani
  • Faraz Rabbani
  • Syed Abdullah Shah Naqshbandi
  • Mufti Ghulam Rasool Jamaati
  • Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Tahawi
  • Farid al-Din Attar
  • Zameer Ikraam Sattaur
  • Abd al-Ghani al-Nabulsi
  • Abdul Razzaq al-Halabi
  • Yusuf Motola


 
Bhutto's Party


Bhutto’s party not People’s Party

When are we going to learn to bring a change for better? We expect change in others but not in ourselves. Privately owned Pseudo political parties and those who grab and steal power by any means in uniform how are they any different?

Pakistan runs on a high octane of raw human emotions and it is yet to be calibrated to run a stable cohesive country. The appointment of Bibi’s son as heir to party comes as a no brainer and a no winner. No elections, no qualifications, no merit, is a standard mortification modus operandi. What a waste and shame! (My prediction in article dated 12/03/07)

The PPP feudal lords’ heritage has a checkered history. ZAB appointed his wife to a life term chairperson; Benazir became lifetime CP herself and now the husband – son taking over the party. So much for Bibi’s lofty and haughty talk of democracy, leaving in her wills the party’s ownership to her husband.

Asif Ali Zardari, who was officially designated co-chairman, as the effective leader of the country's largest political party has this to offer:  

"God willing, when it is the Peoples Party's reign, when the Peoples Party government is formed, then we would have taken revenge for Bibi's blood and that blood would not have gone waste," Zardari said, referring to his late wife by her nickname. -Associated Press.

The above attitude is a reflection of country in deep turmoil. With such political actors in charge it has all signs of a failed state.  Change for better cannot come about with such a farce and blatant political process in Pakistan. Pakistan People’s Party has missed to seize the moment of time and place in history.

PPP is no exception to this comedy of errors. Self serving head honchos of all political parties are cut of the same cloth. Nothing good has come about and will come about from the political circus in the foreseeable future. As the lights are dimming there is no one with fresh ideas. Personal vendetta takes precedence over nation’s security.

“If nothing ever changed, there'd be no butterflies.” 

Save Pakistan not political parties. Put Pakistan first.

Long Live Pakistan!

Nadeem Naik

December 30, 2007

 

 
Daughter of the East


Daughter of the East and Darling of the West

 
The dark invader strikes again. The loss of human life with a tragic twist is a constant reminder of lingering anguish. How many more blows a teetering tottering fragile nation can withstand?

As Bibi, the daughter of the east and darling of the west is laid to rest, the country reels further into abyss of nothingness. Loss is huge but hope must prevail. Time is now to set the nation’s compass straight.
 

After life’s fitful fever, he sleeps well;

Treason has done his worst; nor steel nor poison,

Malice domestic, foreign levy, nothing

Can touch him further.     -Shakespeare.
 

The rise of the nation should far exceed than the downward plunge of terror it has just encountered, from terror central to a nation of love and tranquility.

Can the country grow from here?  Yes, it can by burying the past and starting afresh. Who’s who will have to get their act together to lead the nation to new heights of glory. Time is now to put the gory past behind and reach out to each other for a better tomorrow.

Hope is alive.

Long live Pakistan!

Nadeem Naik

December 29, 2007

 
Political Party


 In response to a question:

 Which political party or a political leader has these very valuable points in its Agenda  Seeking information to campaign for that party/leader 

None.  This is precisely the problem of a problem. No wonder Pakistan is in deep funk.  Please forgive me for being blunt. Here is how I measure things.

1.       We do not have political parties. They are privately owned pseudo political parties.

A) Their leadership has no experience of governess.

B) They are owned by kinship.

C) They do not have transparent hierarchy elections, Similar to USA.

D) What is Benazir without Bhutto s last name?

E)  And who do you think is a successor after her?

F)  What were her demands from gun musharraf? To drop her court cases and remove term limitation for her to be pm again.

G) They will never retire and have no sense of modern world. They will visit the western powers but will never act the same. They are downright selfish and money grabbers.

H) Take the case of PML…Nawaz, had her wife and brother in tow. His son became his spokesperson.

I) Show me a political party which does not have these traits?

Perhaps your conclusions are not too different than mine. We are in a deep rut. We will come out of this but it will take some time. Before I share that plan, allow me to share my feelings first about our Army.

From my previous writings you all may be wondering I do not have kind words for them.  That’s farther from the truth. I have utmost respect for them and look up to them as a symbol of pride and joy. Their valor and honor is appreciated by all the Pakistanis.

Following are the reasons why Army beats the so called politicians every time to the punch.

A)     It is a highly skilled organization.

B)      They have excellent management skills.

C)      Their positions are rotated in orderly fashions.

D)     Not only they are trained in art of war but also play out different scenarios of running the country.

E)      The top brass puts to shame any politician of our country in acumen and experience.

F)      They are armed and politicians are not.

Please do not for a moment conceive I am endorsing them to take over the governess of the country. We should keep all aspects of government in their political sphere. How to straighten out this mess?  It will take a village. And it’s definitely not gun musharraf’s way.  Why? I will attempt it in my next writing.

Please do read my article on Bridge to Democracy.  

Long Live Pakistan.

Regards,

Nadeem Naik

December 3, 2007

 
Pakistan Creation


Pakistan Creation

 
There should be no more discussion of its creation. Period. The time honored thing is, what we have now and what can be done. May I, to the attention of learned men, share, when life hands you a lemon, you make lemonade. Let’s begin the great reconstruction.

I do like the enemy brooding fling. We have two enemy’s to confront; within and dark invader. Enemy #1 is all of us. Pardon me for a straight talk. How and how much have we truly contributed to make a difference in common person’s life? Once the enemy within is put to rest than invading enemy is on equal footing.

Now the end game:

1. Public accountability.

2. No evil and bogus doctrine of necessity.

3. No short cuts in observing law.

4. Respect for all and of all the people.

5. Total transparency.

6. One uniform compulsory Free Education up to grade 10 and parents held accountable.

7. Political parties not personal properties.

8. Gallant Arm Forces not to meddle directly in country’s governance.

9. Division of cities for sole purpose of better management and governess.

10. No more free lunch.

In my next attempt I will detail the implementation. Facta, non verba.

Long Live Pakistan!

Nadeem Naik

December  2, 2007

 

 
Nation Torn Apart


Nation Torn Apart

 

I am sorry to pen down that even after sixty years of independence we could not be a Nation. We are mistakenly feel proud to be called Punjabi, Sindhi, Balochi, Pathan, Shia, Sunni, Dioband etc., etc.,and not Pakistani. We pin point others deficiencies and do not consider ourselves accountable. First of all we will have to be a Nation and prefer national interest over personal across the border. This will give us a sense of realization and brotherhood. This will push us to maintain integrity. I believe this will give us sense of competition to lead other nations in the world and will prove a key of success. Till to-day we are suffering from the disease of leg pulling of one and each other which has pushed us to dirty mud which does not allow us to look ahead.

Response:

I concur with MR. Mirza. We are not a nation but a crowd headless and heedless. You cannot market a product, until it is a finish product. You can fool some of the people some of the time but not all of the people all of the time. I ask, how many wake up calls as a nation we need.

We need to put our house in order first before we contemplate exporting anything. China is a good example. No hegemonic designs until a power house within. Its history speaks for itself. Pakistan is imploding with each tug and pull as we address each other. It is clueless and rudderless of its destiny. This band aid treatment has not worked and will not work, until all of us, our sincere and selfless and true to its survival.

We are destined to be a great nation but first we have to mend our ways. And we can accomplish this by doing the following:

1. Transparency in all acts of the government.

2. Independent Judiciary not appointed but elected, except the apex court and those confirmed by Senate and for life term appointments.

3. Political parties with internal transparent elections and change their heads whenever they lose elections.

4. Governors and Police chiefs should be elected officials.

5. No more Public Office appointments at any level.

Begin the process now and count on it, for the Nation to show its greatness.

Long Live Pakistan.

Regards,

Nadeem Naik

November 30, 2007

 
Kangaroo Courts


KANGAROO COURTS

 

What do you expect from a kangaroo court my country men?  A miracle! A zebra does not change its stripes and a donkey does not stop braying. Another dictator receives his dying government wish, Epitaph disgrace for a president’s tombstone.

Here’s to you gun musharraf :

And nothing to look backward to with pride,

And nothing to look forward to with hope.

                        Robert Frost, The Death of the hired Man

 

Gun musharraf you have overstayed your expired term and worn out your welcome. The phony baloney kangaroo court of Humpty Dumpty has no virtue. You are feckless and destructive as radiation may be to healthy tissue.

You have become a Liability and a Non entity for two great nations; Pakistan and USA. Deep down in your heart you know the truth, off goes the uniform off goes the false notion of a charmer.

Remember history is very unforgiving to all the dictators. And sir, you are no exception.

Do what is Right now:
 

  1. Lift the emergency,
  2. Restore the constitution,
  3. Set the election date,
  4. Resign and go home.

And remember SUN will rise the next day and Pakistan will bask ever more when you are gone. Long Live Pakistan!

Your Friend in need,

Nadeem Naik

November 20, 2007

 
Unity Government


Unity Government = Unity Disaster

 

The invaders are hovering like vultures again. The vultures are benazir and nawaz. They lived a life of comfort and luxury outside the imploding Pakistan since 1999, jetting across in their safe and palatial homes on the globe but Pakistan.

They drop by at last to seize the moment from a gasping dictator on his way out, to pick the cherry to make them blush pink again. Their Looting records are like prize trophies. They have no shame and honor.

“O shame, where is thy blush?” Shakespeare.

Unity government will be like out of the frying pan into the fire. How dare benazir suggest forming a government as non-elected representative of the poor and helpless masses of Pakistan?

From one illegal act of takeover to transfer another is a crying shame of Himalayan magnitude. Great Pakistanis should have sense and balance of history not to make this blunder again. Should we continue to compromise at this juncture of history, it will be unforgiving?

Once for all we should set the compass straight. There should be an orderly transfer of power as I earlier proposed. Let me share this with you my friends, if we do not do this thing right by Western International Standards of Governing, we will have more of the same as before. And let these events of present come as a last warning of a united Pakistan.

I have faith and confidence that with Allah’s help we shall overcome and prosper. Great Pakistanis will defeat the nefarious designs of the enemies (vultures). They will root out terrorism and extremism. They will not falter and they will rise and shine.

Long Live Pakistan!

Nadeem Naik

November 18, 2007

 
Gulity Verdict


Guilty Verdict

Gun musharraf admits he is guilty. He said in a BBC interview,Have I done anything constitutionally illegal? Yes, I did it on 3 November," he said, referring to his imposition of emergency rule. "But did I do it before? Not once."

"Here’s a fish hangs in the net like a poor man’s right in the law; ‘twill hardly come out.” Shakespeare.

What is he smoking? Gun musharraf should resign with immediate effect and face Pakistani courts as a criminal and justice like his countrymen. There should be no exception in rule of law of the Land. No one is above law. We cannot have criminals run the country and get away with it. 

His admission leaves us no choice but to remove him. His admission points out to his arrogance that he is above the law and he is untouchable. If he is not immediately removed, even after his admission of breaking the Law, it will set a new precedent of higher up deceit, corruption and lawlessness. Like water flows from the top lawlessness will further permeate in the society as a result.

"In law a man is guilty when he violates the rights of others. In ethics he is guilty if he only thinks of doing so."  Immanuel Kant.

Now you know why all along he was not doffing his uniform off. He does not want to relinquish power. How long, his henchmen will be in wait? The hour is long but the clock is ticking. There will be a new dawn of new dreams for the poor and helpless of the promise land of Pakistanis.

"We know what we are, but know not what we may be." -Shakespeare

A New Pakistan,

Free of exploiters,

Free of benazir,

Free of nawaz,

Free of hero worshippers,

A Free Pakistan, A Free Pakistan A Free Pakistan.

Regards,

Nadeem Naik

November 18, 2007

 
Hostage crisis not Emergency


Hostage Crisis Not Emergency

 

What the country can not do without musharraf? Gun musharraf strikes again. Pakistan does not need human god. This time it is not the struggle for body of Pakistan but the soul of Pakistan.

True to its aspiration, gun musharraf smacks his lips with power syrup again. His insatiable desire to hang on to power at any price, regardless of its deleterious impact is inexcusable.

Pakistan darkest hour reigns from back in 1999, when he steals the Peoples Right of self governess. With his henchmen, together they lynch the Constitution while the helpless unarmed citizens looked on. It was illegal act then and illegal act now. Period.

He can call what it may; it is a State of Hostage Crisis not a State of Emergency. Gun musharraf has taken the whole country hostage to remain in power. What the will of people cannot accomplish without Marital Law? Great Pakistanis will overcome this hostage taking crisis.

Gun musharraf is untrustworthy and a pathological liar. It is time to make room for a new chapter in Pakistan’s history. A struggle will be mounted to finish all lawlessness, and terrorism and Pakistan will emerge as a strong viable model country among the comity of nations.

Long live Pakistan!

Nadeem naik

November 15, 2007

 
Uniform


I wrote this in response to a question, “Do you support him as civilian president without uniform?”

Do you support him as civilian president without uniform?

What kind of question is this? The reason I have posed this question is to question the sense abilities of people who will dare to change the status quo.

The answer is a resounding no. The recent events of Pakistan should come as a no surprise to anyone. Just as you cannot expect a chameleon not to change colors, you cannot expect a wolf in sheep's clothing not to turn on you. Grab, steal and lawlessness are deeply embedded in governance and character of the Nation.

Not only the disease infested decaying infrastructure needs overhauling but the character of its people require a long needed tune-up. This is not going to happen overnight, no matter who is at the helm of the affairs. It is not of one superman’s feat, with a magic wand who can cleanse the soul of the nation. It does require an entire nation’s will, to change for better and to bring themselves at par with advanced nations of the world.

Let me share why this gangster general is not the panacea. He is only out for himself and is protecting the interest of the vast military empire inside and outside. The heart of the problem lies in a deep seeded mindset of no one else can do better and there are no other options. With this propaganda and controlling the psyche of the people of the country they care less what is right but what they can get away with. The ruthless tyrants military/politicians expect just like in the past, people will fall in line and be enslaved.

The ignominious gangster general has subverted the Sacred Constitution twice and this time took the whole country hostage again and achieved a dubious distinction of being the first.

What could the government not do, without usurping the rights of the people to curb terrorism and lawlessness with the writ and will of the people behind it? In USA even a sad incident of 911 did not bring an army rule. But no, only one person and an army party leader with enormous weapon resources is adamant to subdue the toothless political parties and the innocent population and subject them to their nefarious designs. Since the current marital law, has anything changed in the hinter lands? There will be no change in the long run it will be just more of the same.

Pakistan will and can rise from abject poverty and filth from the top. It will get rid of prevailing pessimism and remove extremist elements and curb terrorism. To achieve this entire populace will have to get together, work together and stay together. Otherwise internal and external forces of evil are bent upon ripping up Pakistan into smaller pieces. Do not forget we do not have the territorial Pakistan of 1947.

Since, the army keeps meddling in the country's governance; it is, with this heavy heart, I am outlining a working solution to the country's present quagmire.

Here is my proposed solution, I humbly submit. I have earlier shared this on my Radio shows. I call this concept "Bridge to Democracy". To prevent a bloody revolution here is how this will work.

1. For the next 16 years, an Army General will become the ceremonial President only for the tenure of his army post. And he would be replaced by his successor automatically. Now the army will have to lead by example; show and tell by being a model, how orderly the transition occurs in the military and the political parties should emulate the same.

2. The office of the Vice President will be held from the majority Political Party.

3. The President will not run the country but only assist in matters of external threats. The power will rest solely in the hands of the elected officials.

4. No ordinances or decree will come from the President office.

5. The Prime Minister will be responsible and accountable to the people for all the actions of the Government.

6. The term of the Prime Minister in the first 16 years will be one term of four years and thereafter two terms of four years.

7. The current head of Army will be immediately replaced and general elections conducted under the watchful eyes of international observers.

8. Current party heads of PPP and PML shall not be eligible to contest the Elections.

9. Before the General Elections all the current political parties will have transparent Party Elections. The party head will be replaced every four years and runs concurrently with the above proposed time-line.

I pray to the Supreme Architect of the Universe to give us the courage to make the difference. Amen.

Let us work together on this proposal and offer the Country a viable solution. Thank you.

Nadeem Naik

November 12, 2007

 
Shame! 2nd Coup


Shame! 2ND COUP.

 

 

Who's Pakistan!!!!!!


Gun's rule Pakistan!

1>170 million?

WHY?

GUN Musharraf seemed to have run out of other political and constitutional options as he took one of the most extraordinary steps by a ruler in 60 years of Pakistan’s life, putting aside not only the Constitution but also his own sweeping powers as president and preferring to act as Chief of the Army Staff.

The emergency proclamation said a situation had arisen where the “government of the country cannot be carried out in accordance with the Constitution” and “the Constitution provides no solution for this situation”.

True! Not for one person to rule.

The fundamental rights suspended by the PCO related to security of persons (article 9) safeguard as to arrest and detention (article 10), freedom of movement (article 15), freedom of assembly, (article 16) freedom of association (article 17), freedom of speech (article 19), and equality of citizens (article 25).

DO YOU KNOW HOW TO GET BACK YOUR RIGHTS?
                                                                       

Nadeem Naik

November 6, 2007

 
Pakistan First

                                                

                                                                Pakistan First


What will it take for Pakistanis to comprehend Why Pakistan First, should be in their hearts and minds? We do not have to look far back in our history in the struggle for the creation of Pakistan.

Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah said on March 23rd 1940 in Minto Park, Lahore. "Mussalmans are a nation according to any definition of nation. We wish our people to develop to the fullest spiritual, cultural, economic, social and political life in a way that we think best and in consonance with our own ideals and according to the genius of our people".

No ruler of Pakistan has ever put Pakistan First as his or her guiding principle. Now, what exactly Pakistan First means?

The idea of Pakistan and establishment of a state was for a sole purpose of having a homeland of homogeneous society of equals.

In the turbulent 60 years since inception it has an appearance of a failed state. Who is responsible of today's quagmire? This is not an attempt to opprobrium who's who but an optimum effort to make Pakistan a viable state with a good measure of introspection.

If we were to honor those who sacrificed everything to actualize Pakistan, then we need to put Pakistan First, above all. The citizens of Pakistan need to act concomitantly in unison against corruption, injustice and establish rule of law. No one should be above law whether a civilian politician or military-politico dictators.

Pakistan today's political crisis have deep roots. It started with the dismissal of the Congress-led government of the North West Frontier Province by decree instead of conducting new elections, which would have started Pakistan on the road to Democracy, a Muslim League leader was installed as the chief minister; Imposition of Urdu language on Bengali's of then East Pakistan. The country's first civilian government got dismissed in 1953; Ayub Khan's Martial law was a nail in the coffin; Break up of Pakistan in 1971 perpetuated by the denial to the majority Party to form a government; Terminating elected governments on any trump up allegations; Grabbing & stealing reins of a crippled Pakistan of lost dreams and continuing complot of the present illegal monstrosity regime.

The whole fiasco is a telltale of future juggernaut's facing the country. General-President Musharraf high Panjandrum and a Grand inquisitor is not a symptom but a consequence, of a mind-set of Pakistanis.

Why are the people of Pakistan expostulating General Musharraf to relinquish power, when 160 million proud are presented with two traduce choices, i.e. Benazir Bhutto and Mian Nawaz Sharif? Why is it in 160 million strong and able Pakistanis when comes election time there are only two names, propped up? It does not bespeak well of a vibrant nation. Is that what great nation of Pakistan has to offer?

There is something reprehensibly wrong with this scenario. It stems from a system of inept and a diseased plagued infrastructure.

General-president Musharraf is not in power because USA needs him at this hour. USA has vital interests. Today a friendly nation can be an enemy of tomorrow, as in the case of Iraq. America is a friend of Pakistan and not of one individual. Just recall the words of President Bush. "Either you are with us or against us.

General-President Musharraf oft repeated repertoire of free and fair Elections is a pipe dream. Who is he kidding? Pakistanis are neither free nor fair to themselves than how can they envisage General-president Musharraf to be antithetic. He is one and it.

General-President Musharraf came to power by sabotaging the constitution of Pakistan. Any Questions?  If he had any sense of putting Pakistan First, he should have not raped the sacred constitution of Pakistan and he can still make the difference by turning his resignation in and be homebound in peace. I will not hold my breath for that. “History depicts all Generals fell to playing the game of catch-as-catch-can till the gunpowder ran out at the heels of their boots.”

No "Deal" makers are engaged in the interest of Pakistan. Term Limitation is a welcome idea. It will fraternize to a system of fairness. Any compromise spells doom for the great nation of Pakistan. Those who ever-held powers in Pakistan have ascertain themselves as avatars of indispensability. They have no shame.

The survival of Pakistan is incumbent upon all citizens to put Pakistan First in their hearts and minds. If Mian Nawaz Sahrif and Benazir Bhutto have any common sense with modicum of self-respect and Pakistan First in their hearts and minds than they should abnegate politics. Enough is enough.

1. Pakistan First, for the gallant army of Pakistan is to stay clear from salivating civil administrative titles.

2. Pakistan First, for political Party's is to have transparent  Party's internal elections with term limitations.

3. Pakistan First, for Judiciary is to dispense Justice with a blind eye. No more 'theory of necessity' for the villains of the constitution. And only transparent public courts are the answers.

4. Pakistan First, for Television and Print media is no compromise at all and telling it as it is.

5. Pakistan First, for bureaucrats is scrupulous eight hour work ethics. Not becoming a money exchanger.

6. Pakistan First, for the clergy is to conform to the glorious Quran, Sura 2:256 (there is no compulsion in the religion)

7. Pakistan First, for the business class is no skimming from the National Treasury.

8. Pakistan First, for the common person is to act upright and conscientious eight hour work of dignity and integrity.

Pakistan First or No Pakistan. Make your choice now! The handwriting is still not obliterated from the walls of 1971.
Long Live Pakistan.

Nadeem Naik

September 12, 2007
Copyright. No printing without prior written approval.

 
Ramadhan

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YUSUFALI: Ramadhan is the (month) in which was sent down the Qur'an, as a guide to mankind, also clear (Signs) for guidance and judgment (Between right and wrong). So every one of you who is present (at his home) during that month should spend it in fasting, but if any one is ill, or on a journey, the prescribed period (Should be made up) by days later. Allah intends every facility for you; He does not want to put to difficulties. (He wants you) to complete the prescribed period, and to glorify Him in that He has guided you; and perchance ye shall be grateful.
PICKTHAL: The month of Ramadan in which was revealed the Qur'an, a guidance for mankind, and clear proofs of the guidance, and the Criterion (of right and wrong). And whosoever of you is present, let him fast the month, and whosoever of you is sick or on a journey, (let him fast the same) number of other days. Allah desireth for you ease; He desireth not hardship for you; and (He desireth) that ye should complete the period, and that ye should magnify Allah for having guided you, and that peradventure ye may be thankful.
SHAKIR: The month of Ramazan is that in which the Quran was revealed, a guidance to men and clear proofs of the guidance and the distinction; therefore whoever of you is present in the month, he shall fast therein, and whoever is sick or upon a journey, then (he shall fast) a (like) number of other days; Allah desires ease for you, and He does not desire for you difficulty, and (He desires) that you should complete the number and that you should exalt the greatness of Allah for His having guided you and that you may give thanks.

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Fasting

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YUSUFALI: O ye who believe! Fasting is prescribed to you as it was prescribed to those before you, that ye may (learn) self-restraint,-
PICKTHAL: O ye who believe! Fasting is prescribed for you, even as it was prescribed for those before you, that ye may ward off (evil);
SHAKIR: O you who believe! fasting is prescribed for you, as it was prescribed for those before you, so that you may guard (against evil).

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YUSUFALI: (Fasting) for a fixed number of days; but if any of you is ill, or on a journey, the prescribed number (Should be made up) from days later. For those who can do it (With hardship), is a ransom, the feeding of one that is indigent. But he that will give more, of his own free will,- it is better for him. And it is better for you that ye fast, if ye only knew.
PICKTHAL: (Fast) a certain number of days; and (for) him who is sick among you, or on a journey, (the same) number of other days; and for those who can afford it there is a ransom: the feeding of a man in need - but whoso doeth good of his own accord, it is better for him: and that ye fast is better for you if ye did but know -
SHAKIR: For a certain number of days; but whoever among you is sick or on a journey, then (he shall fast) a (like) number of other days; and those who are not able to do it may effect a redemption by feeding a poor man; so whoever does good spontaneously it is better for him; and that you fast is better for you if you know.

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YUSUFALI: Ramadhan is the (month) in which was sent down the Qur'an, as a guide to mankind, also clear (Signs) for guidance and judgment (Between right and wrong). So every one of you who is present (at his home) during that month should spend it in fasting, but if any one is ill, or on a journey, the prescribed period (Should be made up) by days later. Allah intends every facility for you; He does not want to put to difficulties. (He wants you) to complete the prescribed period, and to glorify Him in that He has guided you; and perchance ye shall be grateful.
PICKTHAL: The month of Ramadan in which was revealed the Qur'an, a guidance for mankind, and clear proofs of the guidance, and the Criterion (of right and wrong). And whosoever of you is present, let him fast the month, and whosoever of you is sick or on a journey, (let him fast the same) number of other days. Allah desireth for you ease; He desireth not hardship for you; and (He desireth) that ye should complete the period, and that ye should magnify Allah for having guided you, and that peradventure ye may be thankful.
SHAKIR: The month of Ramazan is that in which the Quran was revealed, a guidance to men and clear proofs of the guidance and the distinction; therefore whoever of you is present in the month, he shall fast therein, and whoever is sick or upon a journey, then (he shall fast) a (like) number of other days; Allah desires ease for you, and He does not desire for you difficulty, and (He desires) that you should complete the number and that you should exalt the greatness of Allah for His having guided you and that you may give thanks.

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YUSUFALI: Permitted to you, on the night of the fasts, is the approach to your wives. They are your garments and ye are their garments. Allah knoweth what ye used to do secretly among yourselves; but He turned to you and forgave you; so now associate with them, and seek what Allah Hath ordained for you, and eat and drink, until the white thread of dawn appear to you distinct from its black thread; then complete your fast Till the night appears; but do not associate with your wives while ye are in retreat in the mosques. Those are Limits (set by) Allah: Approach not nigh thereto. Thus doth Allah make clear His Signs to men: that they may learn self-restraint.
PICKTHAL: It is made lawful for you to go in unto your wives on the night of the fast. They are raiment for you and ye are raiment for them. Allah is Aware that ye were deceiving yourselves in this respect and He hath turned in mercy toward you and relieved you. So hold intercourse with them and seek that which Allah hath ordained for you, and eat and drink until the white thread becometh distinct to you from the black thread of the dawn. Then strictly observe the fast till nightfall and touch them not, but be at your devotions in the mosques. These are the limits imposed by Allah, so approach them not. Thus Allah expoundeth His revelation to mankind that they may ward off (evil).
SHAKIR: It is made lawful to you to go into your wives on the night of the fast; they are an apparel for you and you are an apparel for them; Allah knew that you acted unfaithfully to yourselves, so He has turned to you (mercifully) and removed from you (this burden); so now be in contact with them and seek what Allah has ordained for you, and eat and drink until the whiteness of the day becomes distinct from the blackness of the night at dawn, then complete the fast till night, and have not contact with them while you keep to the mosques; these are the limits of Allah, so do not go near them. Thus does Allah make clear His communications for men that they may guard (against evil).

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YUSUFALI: And complete the Hajj or 'umra in the service of Allah. But if ye are prevented (From completing it), send an offering for sacrifice, such as ye may find, and do not shave your heads until the offering reaches the place of sacrifice. And if any of you is ill, or has an ailment in his scalp, (Necessitating shaving), (He should) in compensation either fast, or feed the poor, or offer sacrifice; and when ye are in peaceful conditions (again), if any one wishes to continue the 'umra on to the hajj, He must make an offering, such as he can afford, but if he cannot afford it, He should fast three days during the hajj and seven days on his return, Making ten days in all. This is for those whose household is not in (the precincts of) the Sacred Mosque. And fear Allah, and know that Allah Is strict in punishment.
PICKTHAL: Perform the pilgrimage and the visit (to Makka) for Allah. And if ye are prevented, then send such gifts as can be obtained with ease, and shave not your heads until the gifts have reached their destination. And whoever among you is sick or hath an ailment of the head must pay a ransom of fasting or almsgiving or offering. And if ye are in safety, then whosoever contenteth himself with the visit for the pilgrimage (shall give) such gifts as can be had with ease. And whosoever cannot find (such gifts), then a fast of three days while on the pilgrimage, and of seven when ye have returned; that is, ten in all. That is for him whoso folk are not present at the Inviolable Place of Worship. Observe your duty to Allah, and know that Allah is severe in punishment.
SHAKIR: And accomplish the pilgrimage and the visit for Allah, but if, you are prevented, (send) whatever offering is easy to obtain, and do not shave your heads until the offering reaches its destination; but whoever among you is sick or has an ailment of the head, he (should effect) a compensation by fasting or alms or sacrificing, then when you are secure, whoever profits by combining the visit with the pilgrimage (should take) what offering is easy to obtain; but he who cannot find (any offering) should fast for three days during the pilgrimage and for seven days when you return; these (make) ten (days) complete; this is for him whose family is not present in the Sacred Mosque, and be careful (of your duty) to Allah, and know that Allah is severe in requiting (evil).

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YUSUFALI: Allah will not call you to account for what is futile in your oaths, but He will call you to account for your deliberate oaths: for expiation, feed ten indigent persons, on a scale of the average for the food of your families; or clothe them; or give a slave his freedom. If that is beyond your means, fast for three days. That is the expiation for the oaths ye have sworn. But keep to your oaths. Thus doth Allah make clear to you His signs, that ye may be grateful.
PICKTHAL: Allah will not take you to task for that which is unintentional in your oaths, but He will take you to task for the oaths which ye swear in earnest. The expiation thereof is the feeding of ten of the needy with the average of that wherewith ye feed your own folk, or the clothing of them, or the liberation of a slave, and for him who findeth not (the wherewithal to do so) then a three days' fast. This is the expiation of your oaths when ye have sworn; and keep your oaths. Thus Allah expoundeth unto you His revelations in order that ye may give thanks.
SHAKIR: Allah does not call you to account for what is vain in your oaths, but He calls you to account for the making of deliberate oaths; so its expiation is the feeding of ten poor men out of the middling (food) you feed your families with, or their clothing, or the freeing of a neck; but whosoever cannot find (means) then fasting for three days; this is the expiation of your oaths when you swear; and guard your oaths. Thus does Allah make clear to you His communications, that you may be Fateful.

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YUSUFALI: O ye who believe! Kill not game while in the sacred precincts or in pilgrim garb. If any of you doth so intentionally, the compensation is an offering, brought to the Ka'ba, of a domestic animal equivalent to the one he killed, as adjudged by two just men among you; or by way of atonement, the feeding of the indigent; or its equivalent in fasts: that he may taste of the penalty of his deed. Allah forgives what is past: for repetition Allah will exact from him the penalty. For Allah is Exalted, and Lord of Retribution.
PICKTHAL: O ye who believe! Kill no wild game while ye are on the pilgrimage. Whoso of you killeth it of set purpose he shall pay its forfeit in the equivalent of that which he hath killed, of domestic animals, the judge to be two men among you known for justice, (the forfeit) to be brought as an offering to the Ka'bah; or, for expiation, he shall feed poor persons, or the equivalent thereof in fasting, that he may taste the evil consequences of his deed. Allah forgiveth whatever (of this kind) may have happened in the past, but whoso relapseth, Allah will take retribution from him. Allah is Mighty, Able to Requite (the wrong).
SHAKIR: O you who believe! do not kill game while you are on pilgrimage, and whoever among you shall kill it intentionally, the compensation (of it) is the like of what he killed, from the cattle, as two just persons among you shall judge, as an offering to be brought to the Kaaba or the expiation (of it) is the feeding of the poor or the equivalent of it in fasting, that he may taste the unwholesome result of his deed; Allah has pardoned what is gone by; and whoever returns (to it), Allah will inflict retribution on him; and Allah is Mighty, Lord of Retribution.

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YUSUFALI: For Muslim men and women,- for believing men and women, for devout men and women, for true men and women, for men and women who are patient and constant, for men and women who humble themselves, for men and women who give in Charity, for men and women who fast (and deny themselves), for men and women who guard their chastity, and for men and women who engage much in Allah's praise,- for them has Allah prepared forgiveness and great reward.
PICKTHAL: Lo! men who surrender unto Allah, and women who surrender, and men who believe and women who believe, and men who obey and women who obey, and men who speak the truth and women who speak the truth, and men who persevere (in righteousness) and women who persevere, and men who are humble and women who are humble, and men who give alms and women who give alms, and men who fast and women who fast, and men who guard their modesty and women who guard (their modesty), and men who remember Allah much and women who remember - Allah hath prepared for them forgiveness and a vast reward.
SHAKIR: Surely the men who submit and the women who submit, and the believing men and the believing women, and the obeying men and the obeying women, and the truthful men and the truthful women, and the patient men and the patient women and the humble men and the humble women, and the almsgiving men and the almsgiving women, and the fasting men and the fasting women, and the men who guard their private parts and the women who guard, and the men who remember Allah much and the women who remember-- Allah has prepared for them forgiveness and a mighty reward.

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Gambling & Alcohol

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YUSUFALI: They ask thee concerning wine and gambling. Say: "In them is great sin, and some profit, for men; but the sin is greater than the profit." They ask thee how much they are to spend; Say: "What is beyond your needs." Thus doth Allah Make clear to you His Signs: In order that ye may consider-
PICKTHAL: They question thee about strong drink and games of chance. Say: In both is great sin, and (some) utility for men; but the sin of them is greater than their usefulness. And they ask thee what they ought to spend. Say: that which is superfluous. Thus Allah maketh plain to you (His) revelations, that haply ye may reflect.

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YUSUFALI: O ye who believe! Approach not prayers with a mind befogged, until ye can understand all that ye say,- nor in a state of ceremonial impurity (Except when travelling on the road), until after washing your whole body. If ye are ill, or on a journey, or one of you cometh from offices of nature, or ye have been in contact with women, and ye find no water, then take for yourselves clean sand or earth, and rub therewith your faces and hands. For Allah doth blot out sins and forgive again and again.
PICKTHAL: O ye who believe! Draw not near unto prayer when ye are drunken, till ye know that which ye utter, nor when ye are polluted, save when journeying upon the road, till ye have bathed. And if ye be ill, or on a journey, or one of you cometh from the closet, or ye have touched women, and ye find not water, then go to high clean soil and rub your faces and your hands (therewith). Lo! Allah is Benign, Forgiving.
SHAKIR: O you who believe! do not go near prayer when you are Intoxicated until you know (well) what you say, nor when you are under an obligation to perform a bath-- unless (you are) travelling on the road-- until you have washed yourselves; and if you are sick, or on a journey, or one of you come from the privy or you have touched the women, and you cannot find water, betake yourselves to pure earth, then wipe your faces and your hands; surely Allah is Pardoning, Forgiving.

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YUSUFALI: Satan's plan is (but) to excite enmity and hatred between you, with intoxicants and gambling, and hinder you from the remembrance of Allah, and from prayer: will ye not then abstain?
PICKTHAL: Satan seeketh only to cast among you enmity and hatred by means of strong drink and games of chance, and to turn you from remembrance of Allah and from (His) worship. Will ye then have done?
SHAKIR: The Shaitan only desires to cause enmity and hatred to spring in your midst by means of intoxicants and games of chance, and to keep you off from the remembrance of Allah and from prayer. Will you then desist?

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Women Status

Women status should not be viewed from the male perspective but what the glorious Quran says.

In today’s political correct world the glorious Quran offers wisdom 1400+ years ago.

No mention of a man or women was first.

004.001
O people! be careful of (your duty to) your Lord, Who created you from a single being and created its mate of the same (kind) and spread from these two, many men and women; and be careful of (your duty to) Allah, by Whom you demand one of another (your rights), and (to) the ties of relationship; surely Allah ever watches over you.

Both were duped. Again no superiority shown.

007.019
And (We said): O Adam! Dwell you and your wife in the garden; so eat from where you desire, but do not go near this tree, for then you will be of the unjust.

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But the Shaitan made an evil suggestion to them that he might make manifest to them what had been hidden from them of their evil inclinations, and he said: Your Lord has not forbidden you this tree except that you may not both become two angels or that you may (not) become of the immortals.

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And he swore to them both: Most surely I am a sincere adviser to you.

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Then he caused them to fall by deceit; so when they tasted of the tree, their evil inclinations became manifest to them, and they both began to cover themselves with the leaves of the garden; and their Lord called out to them: Did I not forbid you both from that tree and say to you that the Shaitan is your open enemy?

No blame game again.

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 They said: Our Lord! We have been unjust to ourselves, and if Thou forgive us not, and have (not) mercy on us, we shall certainly be of the losers.

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But the Shaitan made them both fall from it, and caused them to depart from that (state) in which they were; and We said: Get forth, some of you being the enemies of others, and there is for you in the earth an abode and a provision for a time.

No superiority shown here to children of Adam.

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And surely We have honored the children of Adam, and We carry them in the land and the sea, and We have given them of the good things, and We have made them to excel by an appropriate excellence over most of those whom We have created.

Allah calls it evil when any one speaks ill of girl’s birth.

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And when a daughter is announced to one of them his face becomes black and he is full of wrath.

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He hides himself from the people because of the evil of that which is announced to him. Shall he keep it with disgrace or bury it (alive) in the dust? Now surely evil is what they judge.

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Allah's is the kingdom of the heavens and the earth; He creates what He pleases; He grants to whom He pleases daughters and grants to whom He pleases sons.

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Or He makes them of both sorts, male and female; and He makes whom He pleases barren; surely He is the Knowing, the Powerful.

No bias.

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SHAKIR: O you men! surely We have created you of a male and a female, and made you tribes and families that you may know each other; surely the most honorable of you with Allah is the one among you most careful (of his duty); surely Allah is Knowing, Aware.

Equal teachings of Quran.

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And keep to mind what is recited in your houses of the communications of Allah and the wisdom; surely Allah is Knower of subtleties, Aware.

Women allowed to argue their case to higher authorities.

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Allah indeed knows the plea of her who pleads with you about her husband and complains to Allah, and Allah knows the contentions of both of you; surely Allah is Hearing, Seeing.

Alludes to women’s public allegiance.

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O Prophet! when believing women come to you giving you a pledge that they will not associate aught with Allah, and will not steal, and will not commit fornication, and will not kill their children, and will not bring a calumny which they have forged of themselves, and will not disobey you in what is good, accept their pledge, and ask forgiveness for them from Allah; surely Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.

Right’s to select a life partner.

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O you who believe! it is not lawful for you that you should take women as heritage against (their) will, and do not straiten them m order that you may take part of what you have given them, unless they are guilty of manifest indecency, and treat them kindly; then if you hate them, it may be that you dislike a thing while Allah has placed abundant good in it.

Four marriages.

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And if you fear that you cannot act equitably towards orphans, then marry such women as seem good to you, two and three and four; but if you fear that you will not do justice (between them), then (marry) only one or what your right hands possess; this is more proper, that you may not deviate from the right course.

Right to select a life partner leads to love and strong companionship.

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And one of His signs is that He created mates for you from yourselves that you may find rest in them, and He put between you love and compassion; most surely there are signs in this for a people who reflect.

Result of companionship.

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It is made lawful to you to go into your wives on the night of the fast; they are an apparel for you and you are an apparel for them; Allah knew that you acted unfaithfully to yourselves, so He has turned to you (mercifully) and removed from you (this burden); so now be in contact with them and seek what Allah has ordained for you, and eat and drink until the whiteness of the day becomes distinct from the blackness of the night at dawn, then complete the fast till night, and have not contact with them while you keep to the mosques; these are the limits of Allah, so do not go near them. Thus does Allah make clear His communications for men that they may guard (against evil).

Hijab

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 O children of Adam! We have indeed sent down to you clothing to cover your shame, and (clothing) for beauty and clothing that guards (against evil), that is the best. This is of the communications of Allah that they may be mindful.

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And say to the believing women that they cast down their looks and guard their private parts and do not display their ornaments except what appears thereof, and let them wear their head-coverings over their bosoms, and not display their ornaments except to their husbands or their fathers, or the fathers of their husbands, or their sons, or the sons of their husbands, or their brothers, or their brothers' sons, or their sisters' sons, or their women, or those whom their right hands possess, or the male servants not having need (of women), or the children who have not attained knowledge of what is hidden of women; and let them not strike their feet so that what they hide of their ornaments may be known; and turn to Allah all of you, O believers! so that you may be successful.

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Say to the believing men that they cast down their looks and guard their private parts; that is purer for them; surely Allah is Aware of what they do.

Elevated status.

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And when the angels said: O Marium! surely Allah has chosen you and purified you and chosen you above the women of of the world.

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And she came to her people with him, carrying him (with her). They said: O Marium! surely you have done a strange thing.

Moses

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And when he came to the water of Madyan, he found on it a group of men watering, and he found besides them two women keeping back (their flocks). He said: What is the matter with you? They said: We cannot water until the shepherds take away (their sheep) from the water, and our father is a very old man.

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So he watered (their sheep) for them, then went back to the shade and said: My Lord! surely I stand in need of whatever good Thou mayest send down to me.

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Then one of the two women came to him walking bashfully. She said: My father invites you that he may give you the reward of your having watered for us. So when he came to him and gave to him the account, he said: Fear not, you are secure from the unjust people.

Equal treatment by Allah.

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Whoever does g
ood whether male or female and he is a believer, We will most certainly make him live a happy life, and We will most certainly give them their reward for the best of what they did.

Even different religion.

2:62
Surely those who believe,
and those who are Jews,
and the Christians,
and the Sabians,
whoever believes in Allah and the Last day
and does good,
they shall have their reward from their Lord,
and there is no fear for them,
nor shall they grieve.

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Surely the men who submit and the women who submit, and the believing men and the believing women, and the obeying men and the obeying women, and the truthful men and the truthful women, and the patient men and the patient women and the humble men and the humble women, and the almsgiving men and the almsgiving women, and the fasting men and the fasting women, and the men who guard their private parts and the women who guard, and the men who remember Allah much and the women who remember-- Allah has prepared for them forgiveness and a mighty reward.

Equal evidence required.

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And (as for) those who accuse their wives and have no witnesses except themselves, the evidence of one of these (should be taken) four times, bearing Allah to witness that he is most surely of the truthful ones.

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And the fifth (time) that the curse of Allah be on him if he is one of the liars.

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And it shall avert the chastisement from her if she testify four times, bearing Allah to witness that he is most surely one of the liars;

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And (as for) the believing men and the believing women, they are guardians of each other; they enjoin good and forbid evil and keep up prayer and pay the poor-rate, and obey Allah and His Messenger; (as for) these, Allah will show mercy to them; surely Allah is Mighty, Wise.

Allah establishes equal women authority

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Those who, should We establish them in the land, will keep up prayer and pay the poor-rate and enjoin good and forbid evil; and Allah's is the end of affairs.

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Prayers

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YUSUFALI: Guard strictly your (habit of) prayers, especially the Middle Prayer; and stand before Allah in a devout (frame of mind).
PICKTHAL: Be guardians of your prayers, and of the midmost prayer, and stand up with devotion to Allah.
SHAKIR: Attend constantly to prayers and to the middle prayer and stand up truly obedient to Allah.

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YUSUFALI: If ye fear (an enemy), pray on foot, or riding, (as may be most convenient), but when ye are in security, celebrate Allah's praises in the manner He has taught you, which ye knew not (before).
PICKTHAL: And if ye go in fear, then (pray) standing or on horseback. And when ye are again in safety, remember Allah, as He hath taught you that which (heretofore) ye knew not.
SHAKIR: But if you are in danger, then (say your prayers) on foot or on horseback; and when you are secure, then remember Allah, as. He has taught you what you did not know.

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YUSUFALI: Those who believe, and do deeds of righteousness, and establish regular prayers and regular charity, will have their reward with their Lord: on them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve.
PICKTHAL: Lo! those who believe and do good works and establish worship and pay the poor-due, their reward is with their Lord and there shall no fear come upon them neither shall they grieve.
SHAKIR: Surely they who believe and do good deeds and keep up prayer and pay the poor-rate they shall have their reward from their Lord, and they shall have no fear, nor shall they grieve.

004.043
YUSUFALI: O ye who believe! Approach not prayers with a mind befogged, until ye can understand all that ye say,- nor in a state of ceremonial impurity (Except when travelling on the road), until after washing your whole body. If ye are ill, or on a journey, or one of you cometh from offices of nature, or ye have been in contact with women, and ye find no water, then take for yourselves clean sand or earth, and rub therewith your faces and hands. For Allah doth blot out sins and forgive again and again.
PICKTHAL: O ye who believe! Draw not near unto prayer when ye are drunken, till ye know that which ye utter, nor when ye are polluted, save when journeying upon the road, till ye have bathed. And if ye be ill, or on a journey, or one of you cometh from the closet, or ye have touched women, and ye find not water, then go to high clean soil and rub your faces and your hands (therewith). Lo! Allah is Benign, Forgiving.
SHAKIR: O you who believe! do not go near prayer when you are Intoxicated until you know (well) what you say, nor when you are under an obligation to perform a bath-- unless (you are) travelling on the road-- until you have washed yourselves; and if you are sick, or on a journey, or one of you come from the privy or you have touched the women, and you cannot find water, betake yourselves to pure earth, then wipe your faces and your hands; surely Allah is Pardoning, Forgiving.

004.077
YUSUFALI: Hast thou not turned Thy vision to those who were told to hold back their hands (from fight) but establish regular prayers and spend in regular charity? When (at length) the order for fighting was issued to them, behold! a section of them feared men as - or even more than - they should have feared Allah: They said: "Our Lord! Why hast Thou ordered us to fight? Wouldst Thou not Grant us respite to our (natural) term, near (enough)?" Say: "Short is the enjoyment of this world: the Hereafter is the best for those who do right: Never will ye be dealt with unjustly in the very least!
PICKTHAL: Hast thou not seen those unto whom it was said: Withhold your hands, establish worship and pay the poordue, but when fighting was prescribed for them behold! a party of them fear mankind even as their fear of Allah or with greater fear, and say: Our Lord! Why hast Thou ordained fighting for us? If only Thou wouldst give us respite yet a while! Say (unto them, O Muhammad): The comfort of this world is scant; the Hereafter will be better for him who wardeth off (evil); and ye will not be wronged the down upon a date-stone.
SHAKIR: Have you not seen those to whom it was said: Withhold your hands, and keep up prayer and pay the poor-rate; but when fighting is prescribed for them, lo! a party of them fear men as they ought to have feared Allah, or (even) with a greater fear, and say: Our Lord! why hast Thou ordained fighting for us? Wherefore didst Thou not grant us a delay to a near end? Say: The provision of this world is short, and the hereafter is better for him who guards (against evil); and you shall not be wronged the husk of a date stone.

 004.101
YUSUFALI: When ye travel through the earth, there is no blame on you if ye shorten your prayers, for fear the Unbelievers May attack you: For the Unbelievers are unto you open enemies.
PICKTHAL: And when ye go forth in the land, it is no sin for you to curtail (your) worship if ye fear that those who disbelieve may attack you. In truth the disbelievers are an open enemy to you.
SHAKIR: And when you journey in the earth, there is no blame on you if you shorten the prayer, if you fear that those who disbelieve will cause you distress, surely the unbelievers are your open enemy.

004.103
YUSUFALI: When ye pass (Congregational) prayers, celebrate Allah's praises, standing, sitting down, or lying down on your sides; but when ye are free from danger, set up Regular Prayers: For such prayers are enjoined on believers at stated times.
PICKTHAL: When ye have performed the act of worship, remember Allah, standing, sitting and reclining. And when ye are in safety, observe proper worship. Worship at fixed times hath been enjoined on the believers.
SHAKIR: Then when you have finished the prayer, remember Allah standing and sitting and reclining; but when you are secure (from danger) keep up prayer; surely prayer is a timed ordinance for the believers.

004.162
YUSUFALI: But those among them who are well-grounded in knowledge, and the believers, believe in what hath been revealed to thee and what was revealed before thee: And (especially) those who establish regular prayer and practise regular charity and believe in Allah and in the Last Day: To them shall We soon give a great reward.
PICKTHAL: But those of them who are firm in knowledge and the believers believe in that which is revealed unto thee, and that which was revealed before thee, especially the diligent in prayer and those who pay the poor-due, the believers in Allah and the Last Day. Upon these We shall bestow immense reward.
SHAKIR: But the firm in knowledge among them and the believers believe in what has been revealed to. you and what was revealed before you, and those who keep up prayers and those who give the poor-rate and the believers in Allah and the last day, these it is whom We will give a mighty reward.

005.012
YUSUFALI: Allah did aforetime take a covenant from the Children of Israel, and we appointed twelve captains among them. And Allah said: "I am with you: if ye (but) establish regular prayers, practise regular charity, believe in my messengers, honour and assist them, and loan to Allah a beautiful loan, verily I will wipe out from you your evils, and admit you to gardens with rivers flowing beneath; but if any of you, after this, resisteth faith, he hath truly wandered from the path or rectitude."
PICKTHAL: Allah made a covenant of old with the Children of Israel and We raised among them twelve chieftains, and Allah said: Lo! I am with you. If ye establish worship and pay the poor-due, and believe in My messengers and support them, and lend unto Allah a kindly loan, surely I shall remit your sins, and surely I shall bring you into Gardens underneath which rivers flow. Whoso among you disbelieveth after this will go astray from a plain road.
SHAKIR: And certainly Allah made a covenant with the children of Israel, and We raised up among them twelve chieftains; and Allah said: Surely I am with you; if you keep up prayer and pay the poor-rate and believe in My messengers and assist them and offer to Allah a goodly gift, I will most certainly cover your evil deeds, and I will most certainly cause you to enter into gardens beneath which rivers flow, but whoever disbelieves from among you after that, he indeed shall lose the right way. 005.055
YUSUFALI: Your (real) friends are (no less than) Allah, His Messenger, and the (fellowship of) believers,- those who establish regular prayers and regular charity, and they bow down humbly (in worship).
PICKTHAL: Your guardian can be only Allah; and His messenger and those who believe, who establish worship and pay the poordue, and bow down (in prayer).
SHAKIR: Only Allah is your Vali and His Messenger and those who believe, those who keep up prayers and pay the poor-rate while they bow.

006.072
YUSUFALI: "To establish regular prayers and to fear Allah: for it is to Him that we shall be gathered together."
PICKTHAL: And to establish worship and be dutiful to Him, and He it is unto Whom ye will be gathered.
SHAKIR: And that you should keep up prayer and be careful of (your duty to) Him; and He it is to Whom you shall be gathered.

006.092
YUSUFALI: And this is a Book which We have sent down, bringing blessings, and confirming (the revelations) which came before it: that thou mayest warn the mother of cities and all around her. Those who believe in the Hereafter believe in this (Book), and they are constant in guarding their prayers.
PICKTHAL: And this is a blessed Scripture which We have revealed, confirming that which (was revealed) before it, that thou mayst warn the Mother of Villages and those around her. Those who believe in the Hereafter believe herein, and they are careful of their worship.
SHAKIR: And this is a Book We have revealed, blessed, verifying that which is before it, and that you may warn the metropolis and those around her; and those who believe in the hereafter believe in it, and they attend to their prayers constantly.

008.003
YUSUFALI: Who establish regular prayers and spend (freely) out of the gifts We have given them for sustenance:
PICKTHAL: Who establish worship and spend of that We have bestowed on them.
SHAKIR: Those who keep up prayer and spend (benevolently) out of what We have given them.

009.005
YUSUFALI: But when the forbidden months are past, then fight and slay the Pagans wherever ye find them, an seize them, beleaguer them, and lie in wait for them in every stratagem (of war); but if they repent, and establish regular prayers and practise regular charity, then open the way for them: for Allah is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful.
PICKTHAL: Then, when the sacred months have passed, slay the idolaters wherever ye find them, and take them (captive), and besiege them, and prepare for them each ambush. But if they repent and establish worship and pay the poor-due, then leave their way free. Lo! Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.
SHAKIR: So when the sacred months have passed away, then slay the idolaters wherever you find them, and take them captives and besiege them and lie in wait for them in every ambush, then if they repent and keep up prayer and pay the poor-rate, leave their way free to them; surely Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.

009.011
YUSUFALI: But (even so), if they repent, establish regular prayers, and practise regular charity,- they are your brethren in Faith: (thus) do We explain the Signs in detail, for those who understand.
PICKTHAL: But if they repent and establish worship and pay the poor-due, then are they your brethren in religion. We detail Our revelations for a people who have knowledge.
SHAKIR: But if they repent and keep up prayer and pay the poor-rate, they are your brethren in faith; and We make the communications clear for a people who know.

009.018
YUSUFALI: The mosques of Allah shall be visited and maintained by such as believe in Allah and the Last Day, establish regular prayers, and practise regular charity, and fear none (at all) except Allah. It is they who are expected to be on true guidance.
PICKTHAL: He only shall tend Allah's sanctuaries who believeth in Allah and the Last Day and observeth proper worship and payeth the poor-due and feareth none save Allah. For such (only) is it possible that they can be of the rightly guided.
SHAKIR: Only he shall visit the mosques of Allah who believes in Allah and the latter day, and keeps up prayer and pays the poor-rate and fears none but Allah; so (as for) these, it may be that they are of the followers of the right course.

009.071
YUSUFALI: The Believers, men and women, are protectors one of another: they enjoin what is just, and forbid what is evil: they observe regular prayers, practise regular charity, and obey Allah and His Messenger. On them will Allah pour His mercy: for Allah is Exalted in power, Wise.
PICKTHAL: And the believers, men and women, are protecting friends one of another; they enjoin the right and forbid the wrong, and they establish worship and they pay the poor-due, and they obey Allah and His messenger. As for these, Allah will have mercy on them. Lo! Allah is Mighty, Wise.
SHAKIR: And (as for) the believing men and the believing women, they are guardians of each other; they enjoin good and forbid evil and keep up prayer and pay the poor-rate, and obey Allah and His Messenger; (as for) these, Allah will show mercy to them; surely Allah is Mighty, Wise.

009.099
YUSUFALI: But some of the desert Arabs believe in Allah and the Last Day, and look on their payments as pious gifts bringing them nearer to Allah and obtaining the prayers of the Messenger. Aye, indeed they bring them nearer (to Him): soon will Allah admit them to His Mercy: for Allah is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful.
PICKTHAL: And of the wandering Arabs there is he who believeth in Allah and the Last Day, and taketh that which he expendeth and also the prayers of the messenger as acceptable offerings in the sight of Allah. Lo! verily it is an acceptable offering for them. Allah will bring them into His mercy. Lo! Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.
SHAKIR: And of the dwellers of the desert are those who believe in Allah and the latter day and take what they spend to be (means of) the nearness of Allah and the Messenger's prayers; surely it shall be means of nearness for them; Allah will make them enter into His mercy; surely Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.

009.103
YUSUFALI: Of their goods, take alms, that so thou mightest purify and sanctify them; and pray on their behalf. Verily thy prayers are a source of security for them: And Allah is One Who heareth and knoweth.
PICKTHAL: Take alms of their wealth, wherewith thou mayst purify them and mayst make them grow, and pray for them. Lo! thy prayer is an assuagement for them. Allah is Hearer, Knower.
SHAKIR: Take alms out of their property, you would cleanse them and purify them thereby, and pray for them; surely your prayer is a relief to them; and Allah is Hearing, Knowing.

010.087
YUSUFALI: We inspired Moses and his brother with this Message: "Provide dwellings for your people in Egypt, make your dwellings into places of worship, and establish regular prayers: and give glad tidings to those who believe!"
PICKTHAL: And We inspired Moses and his brother, (saying): Appoint houses for your people in Egypt and make your houses oratories, and establish worship. And give good news to the believers.
SHAKIR: And We revealed to Musa and his brother, saying: Take for your people houses to abide in Egypt and make your houses places of worship and keep up prayer and give good news to the believers.

011.114
YUSUFALI: And establish regular prayers at the two ends of the day and at the approaches of the night: For those things, that are good remove those that are evil: Be that the word of remembrance to those who remember (their Lord):
PICKTHAL: Establish worship at the two ends of the day and in some watches of the night. Lo! good deeds annul ill-deeds. This is reminder for the mindful.
SHAKIR: And keep up prayer in the two parts of the day and in the first hours of the night; surely good deeds take away evil deeds this is a reminder to the mindful.

013.022
YUSUFALI: Those who patiently persevere, seeking the countenance of their Lord; Establish regular prayers; spend, out of (the gifts) We have bestowed for their sustenance, secretly and openly; and turn off Evil with good: for such there is the final attainment of the (eternal) home,-
PICKTHAL: Such as persevere in seeking their Lord's Countenance and are regular in prayer and spend of that which We bestow upon them secretly and openly, and overcome evil with good. Theirs will be the sequel of the (heavenly) Home,
SHAKIR: And those who are constant, seeking the pleasure of their Lord, and keep up prayer and spend (benevolently) out of what We have given them secretly and openly and repel evil with good; as for those, they shall have the (happy) issue of the abode

014.031
YUSUFALI: Speak to my servants who have believed, that they may establish regular prayers, and spend (in charity) out of the sustenance we have given them, secretly and openly, before the coming of a Day in which there will be neither mutual bargaining nor befriending.
PICKTHAL: Tell My bondmen who believe to establish worship and spend of that which We have given them, secretly and publicly, before a day cometh wherein there will be neither traffick nor befriending.
SHAKIR: Say to My servants who believe that they should keep up prayer and spend out of what We have given them secretly and openly before the coming of the day in which there shall be no bartering nor mutual befriending.

017.078
YUSUFALI: Establish regular prayers - at the sun's decline till the darkness of the night, and the morning prayer and reading: for the prayer and reading in the morning carry their testimony.
PICKTHAL: Establish worship at the going down of the sun until the dark of night, and (the recital of) the Qur'an at dawn. Lo! (the recital of) the Qur'an at dawn is ever witnessed.
SHAKIR: Keep up prayer from the declining of the sun till the darkness of the night and the morning recitation; surely the morning recitation is witnessed.

019.059
YUSUFALI: But after them there followed a posterity who missed prayers and followed after lusts soon, then, will they face Destruction,-
PICKTHAL: Now there hath succeeded them a later generation whom have ruined worship and have followed lusts. But they will meet deception.
SHAKIR: But there came after them an evil generation, who neglected prayers and followed and sensual desires, so they win meet perdition,

021.073
YUSUFALI: And We made them leaders, guiding (men) by Our Command, and We sent them inspiration to do good deeds, to establish regular prayers, and to practise regular charity; and they constantly served Us (and Us only).
PICKTHAL: And We made them chiefs who guide by Our command, and We inspired in them the doing of good deeds and the right establishment of worship and the giving of alms, and they were worshippers of Us (alone).
SHAKIR: And We made them Imams who guided (people) by Our command, and We revealed to them the doing of good and the keeping up of prayer and the giving of the alms, and Us (alone) did they serve;

023.002
YUSUFALI: Those who humble themselves in their prayers;
PICKTHAL: Who are humble in their prayers,
SHAKIR: Who are humble in their prayers,

023.009
YUSUFALI: And who (strictly) guard their prayers;-
PICKTHAL: And who pay heed to their prayers.
SHAKIR: And those who keep a guard on their prayers;

027.003
YUSUFALI: Those who establish regular prayers and give in regular charity, and also have (full) assurance of the hereafter.
PICKTHAL: Who establish worship and pay the poor-due and are sure of the Hereafter.
SHAKIR: Who keep up prayer and pay the poor-rate, and of the hereafter, they are sure.

030.031
YUSUFALI: Turn ye back in repentance to Him, and fear Him: establish regular prayers, and be not ye among those who join gods with Allah,-
PICKTHAL: Turning unto Him (only); and be careful of your duty unto Him and establish worship, and be not of those who ascribe partners (unto Him);
SHAKIR: Turning to Him, and be careful of (your duty to) Him and keep up prayer and be not of the polytheists

050.040
YUSUFALI: And during part of the night, (also,) celebrate His praises, and (so likewise) after the postures of adoration.
PICKTHAL: And in the night-time hymn His praise, and after the (prescribed) prostrations.
SHAKIR: And glorify Him in the night and after the prayers.

107.005
YUSUFALI: Who are neglectful of their prayers,
PICKTHAL: Who are heedless of their prayer;
SHAKIR: Who are unmindful of their prayers.

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Easy Quran

Glorious Quran made easy for reading and practicing by any one.

25:30
And the Messenger cried out: O my Lord! surely my people have treated this Quran as a forsaken thing.

3:138
This is a clear statement for men, and a guidance and an admonition to those who guard (against evil).

27:01
These are verses of the Qur'an,-a book that makes (things) clear;

28:02
These are the verses of the Book that makes (things) clear.

43:02
I swear by the Book that makes things clear:

65:11
An Messenger who recites to you the clear communications of Allah so that he may bring forth those who believe and do good deeds from darkness into light; and whoever believes in Allah and does good deeds, He will cause him to enter gardens beneath which rivers now, to abide therein forever, Allah has indeed given him a goodly sustenance.

46:09
Say: I am not the first of the messengers, and I do not know what will be done with me or with you: I do not follow anything but that which is revealed to me, and I am nothing but a plain warner.

44:02
By the Book that makes things clear;-

36:69
And We have not taught him poetry, nor is it meet for him; it is nothing but a reminder and a plain Quran,

36:17
"And our duty is only to proclaim the clear Message."

34:43
And when Our clear communications are recited to them, they say: This is naught

29:18
And if you reject (the truth), nations before you did indeed reject (the truth); and nothing is incumbent on the messenger but a plain delivering (of the message).

27:79
Therefore rely on Allah; surely you are on the clear truth.

26:195
In plain Arabic language.

26:115
I am naught but a plain warner.

26:02
These are the verses of the Book that makes (things) clear.

the Ayat below alerts the astute Muslim to guard against the taleban, al-qaeda, and lal masjid mindset and "14 different "uloomes"" the birthing of competing traps(sects)

24:34
And certainly We have sent to you clear communications and a description of those who have passed away before you, and an admonition to those who guard (against evil).

24:01
(This is) a chapter which We have revealed and made obligatory and in which We have revealed clear communications that you may be mindful.

22:49
Say: O people! I am only a plain warner to you

22:16
And thus have We revealed it, being clear arguments, and because Allah guides whom He intends.

21:106
Most surely in this is a message to a people who serve

16:82
But if they turn back, then on you devolves only the clear deliverance

15:89
But if they turn back, then on you devolves only the clear deliverance

15:01
Alif Lam Ra. These are the verses of the Book and (of) a Quran that makes (things) clear.

12:01
Alif Lam Ra. These are the verses of the Book that makes (things) manifest.

6:98
indeed We have made plain the communications for a people who understand.

11:01
Alif Lam Ra (This is) a Book, whose verses are made decisive, then are they made plain, from the Wise, All-aware:

6:114
Shall I then seek a judge other than Allah? And He it is Who has revealed to you the Book (which is) made plain; and those whom We have given the Book know that it is revealed by your Lord with truth, therefore you should not be of the disputers.

24:18
And Allah makes clear to you the communications; and Allah is Knowing, Wise.

stop preaching and share the glorious Quran only, with anyone. preaching is done with, Rasool Allah.

54:17, 54:22, 54:32, 54:40

And certainly We have made the Quran easy for remembrance, but is there anyone who will mind?


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Glorify

033.042
YUSUFALI: And glorify Him morning and evening.
PICKTHAL: And glorify Him early and late.
SHAKIR: And glorify Him morning and evening.

056.074

YUSUFALI: Then celebrate with praises the name of thy Lord, the Supreme!
PICKTHAL: Therefor (O Muhammad), praise the name of thy Lord, the Tremendous.
SHAKIR: Therefore glorify the name of your Lord, the Great.

056.096
YUSUFALI: So celebrate with praises the name of thy Lord, the Supreme.
PICKTHAL: Therefor (O Muhammad) praise the name of thy Lord, the Tremendous.
SHAKIR: Therefore glorify the name of your Lord, the Great.

069.052
YUSUFALI: So glorify the name of thy Lord Most High.
PICKTHAL: So glorify the name of thy Tremendous Lord.
SHAKIR: Therefore-glorify the name of your Lord, the Great.

076.025

YUSUFALI: And celebrate the name of thy Lord morning and evening,
PICKTHAL: Remember the name of thy Lord at morn and evening.
SHAKIR: And glorify the name of your Lord morning and evening.

076.026
YUSUFALI: And part of the night, prostrate thyself to Him; and glorify Him a long night through.
PICKTHAL: And worship Him (a portion) of the night. And glorify Him through the livelong night.
SHAKIR: And during part of the night adore Him, and give glory to Him (a) long (part of the) night.

087.001
YUSUFALI: Glorify the name of thy Guardian-Lord Most High,
PICKTHAL: Praise the name of thy Lord the Most High,
SHAKIR: Glorify the name of your Lord, the Most High,

087.015
YUSUFALI: And glorify the name of their Guardian-Lord, and (lift their hearts) in prayer.
PICKTHAL: And remembereth the name of his Lord, so prayeth,
SHAKIR: And magnifies the name of his Lord and prays.
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Behavior

Behavior:

Discuss in a kindly manner with those given earlier revelation
16.125
 Call to the way of your Lord with wisdom and goodly exhortation, and have disputations with them in the best manner; surely your Lord best knows those who go astray from His path, and He knows best those who follow the right way.
29:46
And do not dispute with the followers of the Book except by what is best, except those of them who act unjustly, and say: We believe in that which has been revealed to us and revealed to you, and our Allah and your Allah is One, and to Him do we submit.

Avoid becoming involved in matters you know nothing of

17:36
And follow not that of which you have not the knowledge; surely the hearing and the sight and the heart, all of these, shall be questioned about that.

Avoid grave sins and shameful deeds
53:32
Those who keep aloof from the great sins and the indecencies but the passing idea; surely your Lord is liberal in forgiving. He knows you best when He brings you forth from the earth and when you are embryos in the wombs of your mothers; therefore do not attribute purity to your souls; He knows him best who guards (against evil).

Avoid guesswork about one another
49:12
O you who believe! avoid most of suspicion, for surely suspicion in some cases is a sin, and do not spy nor let some of you backbite others. Does one of you like to eat the flesh of his dead brother? But you abhor it; and be careful of (your duty to) Allah, surely Allah is Oft-returning (to mercy), Merciful.

Be just in your opinions
6:152
And do not approach the property of the orphan except in the best manner until he attains his maturity, and give full measure and weight with justice-- We do not impose on any soul a duty except to the extent of its ability; and when you speak, then be just though it be (against) a relative, and fulfill Allah's covenant; this He has enjoined you with that you may be mindful;

Community should be moderate

2:143
And thus We have made you a medium (just) nation that you may be the bearers of witness to the people and (that) the Messenger may be a bearer of witness to you; and We did not make that which you would have to be the qiblah but that We might distinguish him who follows the Messenger from him who turns back upon his heels, and this was surely hard except for those whom Allah has guided aright; and Allah was not going to make your faith to be fruitless; most surely Allah is Affectionate, Merciful to the people.
25:67
And they who when they spend, are neither extravagant nor parsimonious, and (keep) between these the just mean.

Conceit discouraged
4:36
And serve Allah and do not associate any thing with Him and be good to the parents and to the near of kin and the orphans and the needy and the neighbor of (your) kin and the alien neighbor, and the companion in a journey and the wayfarer and those whom your right hands possess; surely Allah does not love him who is proud, boastful;
57:23
So that you may not grieve for what has escaped you, nor be exultant at what He has given you; and Allah does not love any arrogant boaster:

Don't chide those who seek your help
93:10
And as for him who asks, do not chide (him),

Don't consider yourself pure
53:32
Those who keep aloof from the great sins and the indecencies but the passing idea; surely your Lord is liberal in forgiving. He knows you best when He brings you forth from the earth and when you are embryos in the wombs of your mothers; therefore do not attribute purity to your souls; He knows him best who guards (against evil).

Do not deride others
49:11
O you who believe! let not (one) people laugh at (another) people perchance they may be better than they, nor let women (laugh) at (other) women, perchance they may be better than they; and do not find fault with your own people nor call one another by nicknames; evil is a bad name after faith, and whoever does not turn, these it is that are the unjust.

Do not mention evil things openly
4:148
Allah does not love the public utterance of hurtful speech unless (it be) by one to whom injustice has been done; and Allah is Hearing, Knowing.

Do not speak ill of each other
49:12
O you who believe! avoid most of suspicion, for surely suspicion in some cases is a sin, and do not spy nor let some of you backbite others. Does one of you like to eat the flesh of his dead brother? But you abhor it; and be careful of (your duty to) Allah, surely Allah is Oft-returning (to mercy), Merciful.
104:01
Woe to every slanderer, defamer,

Do not spy on each other
49:12
O you who believe! avoid most of suspicion, for surely suspicion in some cases is a sin, and do not spy nor let some of you backbite others. Does one of you like to eat the flesh of his dead brother? But you abhor it; and be careful of (your duty to) Allah, surely Allah is Oft-returning (to mercy), Merciful.


Each group given a law and way of life

2:148
And every one has a direction to which he should turn, therefore hasten to (do) good works; wherever you are, Allah will bring you all together; surely Allah has power over all things.
And We have revealed to you the Book with the truth, verifying what is before it of the Book and a guardian over it, therefore judge between them by what Allah has revealed, and do not follow their low desires (to turn away) from the truth that has come to you; for every one of you did We appoint a law and a way, and if Allah had pleased He would have made you (all) a single people, but that He might try you in what He gave you, therefore strive with one another to hasten to virtuous deeds; to Allah is your return, of all (of you), so He will let you know that in which you differed;
10:47
And every nation had a messenger; so when their messenger came, the matter was decided between them with justice and they shall not be dealt with unjustly.
10:74
Then did We raise up after him messengers to their people, so they came to them with clear arguments, but they would not believe in what they had rejected before; thus it is that We set seals upon the hearts of those who exceed the limits.
13:38
And certainly We sent messengers before you and gave them wives and children, and it is not in (the power of) an messenger to bring a sign except by Allah's permission; for every term there is an appointment.
16:36
And certainly We raised in every nation a messenger saying: Serve Allah and shun the Shaitan. So there were some of them whom Allah guided and there were others against whom error was due; therefore travel in the land, then see what was the end of the rejecters.
16:63
By Allah, most certainly We sent (messengers) to nations before you, but the Shaitan made their deeds fair-seeming to them, so he is their guardian today, and they shall have a painful punishment.

16:84
And on the day when We will raise up a witness out of every nation, then shall no permission be given to those who disbelieve, nor shall they be made to solicit favor.

And a prophet,
10:47
 And every nation had a messenger; so when their messenger came, the matter was decided between them with justice and they shall not be dealt with unjustly.
16:36
 And certainly We raised in every nation a messenger saying: Serve Allah and shun the Shaitan. So there were some of them whom Allah guided and there were others against whom error was due; therefore travel in the land, then see what was the end of the rejecters.

And a way of worship
22:67
To every nation We appointed acts of devotion which they observe, therefore they should not dispute with you about the matter and call to your Lord; most surely you are on a right way.

Allah could have made them one community
5:48
And We have revealed to you the Book with the truth, verifying what is before it of the Book and a guardian over it, therefore judge between them by what Allah has revealed, and do not follow their low desires (to turn away) from the truth that has come to you; for every one of you did We appoint a law and a way, and if Allah had pleased He would have made you (all) a single people, but that He might try you in what He gave you, therefore strive with one another to hasten to virtuous deeds; to Allah is your return, of all (of you), so He will let you know that in which you differed;
11:118
And if your Lord had pleased He would certainly have made people a single nation, and they shall continue to differ.
16:93
And if Allah please He would certainly make you a single nation, but He causes to err whom He pleases and guides whom He pleases; and most certainly you will be questioned as to what you did.
42:08
And if Allah had pleased He would surely have made them a single community, but He makes whom He pleases enter into His mercy, and the unjust it is that shall have no guardian or helper.
21:92
one community under Allah

Forgive Jews who distort the Qur'an
5:13
But on account of their breaking their covenant We cursed them and made their hearts hard; they altered the words from their places and they neglected a portion of what they were reminded of; and you shall always discover treachery in them excepting a few of them; so pardon them and turn away; surely Allah loves those who do good (to others).

Forgive non-believers

31:15
And if they contend with you that you should associate with Me what you have no knowledge of, do not obey them, and keep company with them in this world kindly, and follow the way of him who turns to Me, then to Me is your return, then will I inform you of what you did--
45:14
Say to those who believe (that) they forgive those who do not fear the days of Allah that He may reward a people for what they earn.

Forgive readily,
42:37
And those who. shun the great sins and indecencies, and whenever they are angry they forgive.

Maligning believers is sinful
33:58
And those who speak evil things of the believing men and the believing women without their having earned (it), they are guilty indeed of a false accusation and a manifest sin.

Men (toward women)
24:30
Say to the believing men that they cast down their looks and guard their private parts; that is purer for them; surely Allah is Aware of what they do.

Peacemakers rewarded
42:40
And the recompense of evil is punishment like it, but whoever forgives and amends, he shall have his reward from Allah; surely He does not love the unjust.

Rulers make decisions after consultations
42:38
And those who respond to their Lord and keep up prayer, and their rule is to take counsel among themselves, and who spend out of what We have given them.

Speak justly toward those in want, if you can do nothing else,
17:28
And if you turn away from them to seek mercy from your Lord, which you hope for, speak to them a gentle word.


Towards aging parents in your care
17:23
 And your Lord has commanded that you shall not serve (any) but Him, and goodness to your parents. If either or both of them reach old age with you, say not to them (so much as) "Ugh" nor chide them, and speak to them a generous word.

Towards parents,
46:15
And We have enjoined on man doing of good to his parents; with trouble did his mother bear him and with trouble did she bring him forth; and the bearing of him and the weaning of him was thirty months; until when he attains his maturity and reaches forty years, he says: My Lord! grant me that I may give thanks for Thy favor which Thou hast bestowed on me and on my parents, and that I may do good which pleases Thee and do good to me in respect of my offspring; surely I turn to Thee, and surely I am of those who submit.

Towards other Muslims
33:06
The Prophet has a greater claim on the faithful than they have on themselves, and his wives are (as) their mothers; and the possessors of relationship have the better claim in the ordinance of Allah to inheritance, one with respect to another, than (other) believers, and (than) those who have fled (their homes), except that you do some good to your friends; this is written in the Book.

Towards others,
17:26-29
017.026
And give to the near of kin his due and (to) the needy and the wayfarer, and do not squander wastefully.
017.027
Surely the squanderers are the fellows of the Shaitans and the Shaitan is ever ungrateful to his Lord.
017.028
And if you turn away from them to seek mercy from your Lord, which you hope for, speak to them a gentle word.
017.029
And do not make your hand to be shackled to your neck nor stretch it forth to the utmost (limit) of its stretching forth, lest you should (afterwards) sit down blamed, stripped off.
017.035
And give full measure when you measure out, and weigh with a true balance; this is fair and better in the end.
017.053
And say to My servants (that) they speak that which is best; surely the Shaitan sows dissensions among them; surely the Shaitan is an open enemy to man.
060.008
Allah does not forbid you respecting those who have not made war against you on account of (your) religion, and have not driven you forth from your homes, that you show them kindness and deal with them justly; surely Allah loves the doers of justice.

Towards slaves
4:36
And serve Allah and do not associate any thing with Him and be good to the parents and to the near of kin and the orphans and the needy and the neighbor of (your) kin and the alien neighbor, and the companion in a journey and the wayfarer and those whom your right hands possess; surely Allah does not love him who is proud, boastful;
24:33
And let those who do not find the means to marry keep chaste until Allah makes them free from want out of His grace. And (as for) those who ask for a writing from among those whom your right hands possess, give them the writing if you know any good in them, and give them of the wealth of Allah which He has given you; and do not compel your slave girls to prostitution, when they desire to keep chaste, in order to seek the frail good of this world's life; and whoever compels them, then surely after their compulsion Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.


Treat non-belligerent non-believers with equity
60:08
Allah does not forbid you respecting those who have not made war against you on account of (your) religion, and have not driven you forth from your homes, that you show them kindness and deal with them justly; surely Allah loves the doers of justice.

Wives of the Prophet
033.028
O Prophet! say to your wives: If you desire this world's life and its adornment, then come, I will give you a provision and allow you to depart a goodly departing
033.029
And if you desire Allah and His Messenger and the latter abode, then surely Allah has prepared for the doers of good among you a mighty reward.
033.030
O wives of the prophet! whoever of you commits an open indecency, the punishment shall be increased to her doubly; and this IS easy to Allah.
033.031
And whoever of you is obedient to Allah and His Messenger and does good, We will give to her her reward doubly, and We have prepared for her an honorable sustenance.
033.032
O wives of the Prophet! you are not like any other of the women; If you will be on your guard, then be not soft in (your) speech, lest he in whose heart is a disease yearn; and speak a good word.
033.033
And stay in your houses and do not display your finery like the displaying of the ignorance of yore; and keep up prayer, and pay the poor-rate, and obey Allah and His Messenger. Allah only desires to keep away the uncleanness from you, O people of the House! and to purify you a (thorough) purifying.
033.034
And keep to mind what is recited in your houses of the communications of Allah and the wisdom; surely Allah is Knower of subtleties, Aware.

Women (toward men)
24:31
And say to the believing women that they cast down their looks and guard their private parts and do not display their ornaments except what appears thereof, and let them wear their head-coverings over their bosoms, and not display their ornaments except to their husbands or their fathers, or the fathers of their husbands, or their sons, or the sons of their husbands, or their brothers, or their brothers' sons, or their sisters' sons, or their women, or those whom their right hands possess, or the male servants not having need (of women), or the children who have not attained knowledge of what is hidden of women; and let them not strike their feet so that what they hide of their ornaments may be known; and turn to Allah all of you, O believers! so that you may be successful.

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Book

002.002
YUSUFALI: This is the Book; in it is guidance sure, without doubt, to those who fear Allah;
PICKTHAL: This is the Scripture whereof there is no doubt, a guidance unto those who ward off (evil).
SHAKIR: This Book, there is no doubt in it, is a guide to those who guard (against evil).

078.029
YUSUFALI: And all things have We preserved on record.
PICKTHAL: Everything have We recorded in a Book.
SHAKIR: And We have recorded everything in a book,


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Sects

003.103
YUSUFALI: And hold fast, all together, by the rope which Allah (stretches out for you), and be not divided among yourselves; and remember with gratitude Allah's favour on you; for ye were enemies and He joined your hearts in love, so that by His Grace, ye became brethren; and ye were on the brink of the pit of Fire, and He saved you from it. Thus doth Allah make His Signs clear to you: That ye may be guided.
PICKTHAL: And hold fast, all of you together, to the cable of Allah, and do not separate. And remember Allah's favour unto you: How ye were enemies and He made friendship between your hearts so that ye became as brothers by His grace; and (how) ye were upon the brink of an abyss of fire, and He did save you from it. Thus Allah maketh clear His revelations unto you, that haply ye may be guided,
SHAKIR: And hold fast by the covenant of Allah all together and be not disunited, and remember the favor of Allah on you when you were enemies, then He united your hearts so by His favor you became brethren; and you were on the brink of a pit of fire, then He saved you from it, thus does Allah make clear to you His communications that you may follow the right way.

006.159
YUSUFALI: As for those who divide their religion and break up into sects, thou hast no part in them in the least: their affair is with Allah: He will in the end tell them the truth of all that they did.
PICKTHAL: Lo! As for those who sunder their religion and become schismatics, no concern at all hast thou with them. Their case will go to Allah, Who then will tell them what they used to do.
SHAKIR: Surely they who divided their religion into parts and became sects, you have no concern with them; their affair is only with Allah, then He will inform them of what they did.

006.116
YUSUFALI: Wert thou to follow the common run of those on earth, they will lead thee away from the way of Allah. They follow nothing but conjecture: they do nothing but lie.
PICKTHAL: If thou obeyedst most of those on earth they would mislead thee far from Allah's way. They follow naught but an opinion, and they do but guess.
SHAKIR: And if you obey most of those in the earth, they will lead you astray from Allah's way; they follow but conjecture and they only lie. e majority of people on earth misguided/disbelievers:
 
 030.030
YUSUFALI: So set thou thy face steadily and truly to the Faith: (establish) Allah's handiwork according to the pattern on which He has made mankind: no change (let there be) in the work (wrought) by Allah: that is the standard Religion: but most among mankind understand not.
PICKTHAL: So set thy purpose (O Muhammad) for religion as a man by nature upright - the nature (framed) of Allah, in which He hath created man. There is no altering (the laws of) Allah's creation. That is the right religion, but most men know not -
SHAKIR: Then set your face upright for religion in the right state-- the nature made by Allah in which He has made men; there is no altering of Allah's creation; that is the right religion, but most people do not know.

011.017

YUSUFALI: Can they be (like) those who accept a Clear (Sign) from their Lord, and whom a witness from Himself doth teach, as did the Book of Moses before it,- a guide and a mercy? They believe therein; but those of the Sects that reject it,- the Fire will be their promised meeting-place. Be not then in doubt thereon: for it is the truth from thy Lord: yet many among men do not believe!
PICKTHAL: Is he (to be counted equal with them) who relieth on a clear proof from his Lord, and a witness from Him reciteth it, and before it was the Book of Moses, an example and a mercy? Such believe therein, and whoso disbelieveth therein of the clans, the Fire is his appointed place. So be not thou in doubt concerning it. Lo! it is the Truth from thy Lord; but most of mankind believe not.
SHAKIR: Is he then who has with him clear proof from his Lord, and a witness from Him recites it and before it (is) the Book of Musa, a guide and a mercy? These believe in it; and whoever of the (different) parties disbelieves in it, surely it is the truth from your Lord, but most men do not believe.

015.010
YUSUFALI: We did send messengers before thee amongst the religious sects of old:
PICKTHAL: We verily sent (messengers) before thee among the factions of the men of old.
SHAKIR: And certainly We sent (messengers) before you among the nations of yore.

019.037
YUSUFALI: But the sects differ among themselves: and woe to the unbelievers because of the (coming) Judgment of a Momentous Day!
PICKTHAL: The sects among them differ: but woe unto the disbelievers from the meeting of an awful Day.
SHAKIR: But parties from among them disagreed with each other, so woe to those who disbelieve, because of presence on a great

021.093
YUSUFALI: But (later generations) cut off their affair (of unity), one from another: (yet) will they all return to Us.
PICKTHAL: And they have broken their religion (into fragments) among them, (yet) all are returning unto Us.
SHAKIR: And they broke their religion (into sects) between them: to Us shall all come back.

023.053
YUSUFALI: But people have cut off their affair (of unity), between them, into sects: each party rejoices in that which is with itself.
PICKTHAL: But they (mankind) have broken their religion among them into sects, each group rejoicing in its tenets.
SHAKIR: But they cut off their religion among themselves into sects, each part rejoicing in that which is with them

027.045
YUSUFALI: We sent (aforetime), to the Thamud, their brother Salih, saying, "Serve Allah": But behold, they became two factions quarrelling with each other.
PICKTHAL: And We verily sent unto Thamud their brother Salih, saying: Worship Allah. And lo! they (then became two parties quarrelling.
SHAKIR: And certainly We sent to Samood their brother Salih, saying: Serve Allah; and lo! they became two sects quarrelling with each other.

030.032
YUSUFALI: Those who split up their Religion, and become (mere) Sects,- each party rejoicing in that which is with itself!
PICKTHAL: Of those who split up their religion and became schismatics, each sect exulting in its tenets.
SHAKIR: Of those who divided their religion and became seas every sect rejoicing in what they had with them

043.065
YUSUFALI: But sects from among themselves fell into disagreement: then woe to the wrong-doers, from the Penalty of a Grievous Day!
PICKTHAL: But the factions among them differed. Then woe unto those who do wrong from the doom of a painful day.
SHAKIR: But parties from among them differed, so woe to those who were unjust because of the chastisement of a painful day.

072.011
YUSUFALI: 'There are among us some that are righteous, and some the contrary: we follow divergent paths.
PICKTHAL: And among us there are righteous folk and among us there are far from that. We are sects having different rules.
SHAKIR: And that some of us are good and others of us are below that: we are sects following different ways.

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Wadu

005.006
YUSUFALI: O ye who believe! when ye prepare for prayer, wash your faces, and your hands (and arms) to the elbows; Rub your heads (with water); and (wash) your feet to the ankles. If ye are in a state of ceremonial impurity, bathe your whole body. But if ye are ill, or on a journey, or one of you cometh from offices of nature, or ye have been in contact with women, and ye find no water, then take for yourselves clean sand or earth, and rub therewith your faces and hands, Allah doth not wish to place you in a difficulty, but to make you clean, and to complete his favour to you, that ye may be grateful.
PICKTHAL: O ye who believe! When ye rise up for prayer, wash you faces, and your hands up to the elbows, and lightly rub your heads and (wash) your feet up to the ankles. And if ye are unclean, purify yourselves. And if ye are sick or on a journey, or one of you cometh from the closet, or ye have had contact with women, and ye find not water, then go to clean, high ground and rub your faces and your hands with some of it. Allah would not place a burden on you, but He would purify you and would perfect His grace upon you, that ye may give thanks.
SHAKIR: O you who believe! when you rise up to prayer, wash your faces and your hands as far as the elbows, and wipe your heads and your feet to the ankles; and if you are under an obligation to perform a total ablution, then wash (yourselves) and if you are sick or on a journey, or one of you come from the privy, or you have touched the women, and you cannot find water, betake yourselves to pure earth and wipe your faces and your hands therewith, Allah does not desire to put on you any difficulty, but He wishes to purify you and that He may complete His favor on you, so that you may be grateful.

Conditions under Wadu becomes a requirement.

004.043
YUSUFALI: O ye who believe! Approach not prayers with a mind befogged, until ye can understand all that ye say,- nor in a state of ceremonial impurity (Except when travelling on the road), until after washing your whole body. If ye are ill, or on a journey, or one of you cometh from offices of nature, or ye have been in contact with women, and ye find no water, then take for yourselves clean sand or earth, and rub therewith your faces and hands. For Allah doth blot out sins and forgive again and again.
PICKTHAL: O ye who believe! Draw not near unto prayer when ye are drunken, till ye know that which ye utter, nor when ye are polluted, save when journeying upon the road, till ye have bathed. And if ye be ill, or on a journey, or one of you cometh from the closet, or ye have touched women, and ye find not water, then go to high clean soil and rub your faces and your hands (therewith). Lo! Allah is Benign, Forgiving.
SHAKIR: O you who believe! do not go near prayer when you are Intoxicated until you know (well) what you say, nor when you are under an obligation to perform a bath-- unless (you are) travelling on the road-- until you have washed yourselves; and if you are sick, or on a journey, or one of you come from the privy or you have touched the women, and you cannot find water, betake yourselves to pure earth, then wipe your faces and your hands; surely Allah is Pardoning, Forgiving.

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In sha' Allah

018.023
YUSUFALI: Nor say of anything, "I shall be sure to do so and so tomorrow"-
PICKTHAL: And say not of anything: Lo! I shall do that tomorrow,
SHAKIR: And do not say of anything: Surely I will do it tomorrow.

018.024
YUSUFALI: Without adding, "So please Allah!" and call thy Lord to mind when thou forgettest, and say, "I hope that my Lord will guide me ever closer (even) than this to the right road."
PICKTHAL: Except if Allah will. And remember thy Lord when thou forgettest, and say: It may be that my Lord guideth me unto a nearer way of truth than this.
SHAKIR: Unless Allah pleases; and remember your Lord when you forget and say: Maybe my Lord will guide me to a nearer course to the right than this.

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Greetings

004.086

Pl. read the following Ayat from the Quran. Pay particular attention to 4.86.  In my personal understanding it is very expansive. Our A.A is the best greeting of all the greetings i have come across and it is perfect if we use it with a non muslim because it, invokes the blessing of the Almighty. And if you can come up with a better greeting than this, in any language as i understand this Ayat gives you that latitude. Also, read 2.256. The Quran says:
004.086
YUSUFALI: When a (courteous) greeting is offered you, meet it with a greeting still more courteous, or (at least) of equal courtesy. Allah takes careful account of all things.
PICKTHAL: When ye are greeted with a greeting, greet ye with a better than it or return it. Lo! Allah taketh count of all things.
SHAKIR: And when you are greeted with a greeting, greet with a better (greeting) than it or return it; surely Allah takes account of all things.
010.010
YUSUFALI:  Glory to Thee, O Allah!" And "Peace" will be their greeting therein!
PICKTHAL:  Glory be to Thee, O Allah! and their greeting therein will be: Peace.
SHAKIR: Glory to Thee, O Allah! and their greeting in it shall be: Peace;
014.023
YUSUFALI:  Their greeting therein will be: "Peace!"
PICKTHAL:  their greeting therein: Peace!
SHAKIR:  their greeting therein is, Peace.
057.012
YUSUFALI:: "Good News for you this Day!
PICKTHAL: Glad news for you this day
SHAKIR: good news for you today
024.061
YUSUFALI: But when ye enter houses, salute one another with a greeting from Allah, blessed and sweet. Thus Allah maketh clear His revelations for you, that haply ye may understand.
PICKTHAL : when ye enter houses, salute one another with a greeting from Allah, blessed and sweet. Thus Allah maketh clear His revelations for you, that haply ye may understand.
SHAKIR:   So when you enter houses, greet your people with a salutation from Allah, blessed (and) goodly; thus does Allah make clear to you the communications that you may understand.
056.091
YUSUFALI: "Peace be unto thee", from the Companions of the Right Hand.
PICKTHAL: Then (the greeting) "Peace be unto thee" from those on the right hand.
SHAKIR: Then peace to you from those on the right hand.
058.008
YUSUFALI: they salute thee, not as Allah salutes thee,  
PICKTHAL:  they greet thee with a greeting wherewith Allah greeteth thee not,  
SHAKIR:  they greet you with a greeting with which Allah does not greet you, 

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Compulsion

002.256
YUSUFALI: Let there be no compulsion in religion: Truth stands out clear from Error: whoever rejects evil and believes in Allah hath grasped the most trustworthy hand-hold, that never breaks. And Allah heareth and knoweth all things.
PICKTHAL: There is no compulsion in religion. The right direction is henceforth distinct from error. And he who rejecteth false deities and believeth in Allah hath grasped a firm handhold which will never break. Allah is Hearer, Knower.
SHAKIR: There is no compulsion in religion; truly the right way has become clearly distinct from error; therefore, whoever disbelieves in the Shaitan and believes in Allah he indeed has laid hold on the firmest handle, which shall not break off, and Allah is Hearing, Knowing.

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Moon

002.189
YUSUFALI: They ask thee concerning the New Moons. Say: They are but signs to mark fixed periods of time in (the affairs of) men, and for Pilgrimage. It is no virtue if ye enter your houses from the back: It is virtue if ye fear Allah. Enter houses through the proper doors: And fear Allah: That ye may prosper.
PICKTHAL: They ask thee, (O Muhammad), of new moons, say: They are fixed seasons for mankind and for the pilgrimage. It is not righteousness that ye go to houses by the backs thereof (as do the idolaters at certain seasons), but the righteous man is he who wardeth off (evil). So go to houses by the gates thereof, and observe your duty to Allah, that ye may be successful.
SHAKIR: They ask you concerning the new moon. Say: They are times appointed for (the benefit of) men, and (for) the pilgrimage; and it is not righteousness that you should enter the houses at their backs, but righteousness is this that one should guard (against evil); and go into the houses by their doors and be careful (of your duty) to Allah, that you may be successful.

006.077
YUSUFALI: When he saw the moon rising in splendour, he said: "This is my Lord." But when the moon set, He said: "unless my Lord guide me, I shall surely be among those who go astray."
PICKTHAL: And when he saw the moon uprising, he exclaimed: This is my Lord. But when it set, he said: Unless my Lord guide me, I surely shall become one of the folk who are astray.
SHAKIR: Then when he saw the moon rising, he said: Is this my Lord? So when it set, he said: If my Lord had not guided me I should certainly be of the erring people.

006.096
YUSUFALI: He it is that cleaveth the day-break (from the dark): He makes the night for rest and tranquillity, and the sun and moon for the reckoning (of time): Such is the judgment and ordering of (Him), the Exalted in Power, the Omniscient.
PICKTHAL: He is the Cleaver of the Daybreak, and He hath appointed the night for stillness, and the sun and the moon for reckoning. That is the measuring of the Mighty, the Wise.
SHAKIR: He causes the dawn to break; and He has made the night for rest, and the sun and the moon for reckoning; this is an arrangement of the Mighty, the Knowing.

007.054
YUSUFALI: Your Guardian-Lord is Allah, Who created the heavens and the earth in six days, and is firmly established on the throne (of authority): He draweth the night as a veil o'er the day, each seeking the other in rapid succession: He created the sun, the moon, and the stars, (all) governed by laws under His command. Is it not His to create and to govern? Blessed be Allah, the Cherisher and Sustainer of the worlds!
PICKTHAL: Lo! your Lord is Allah Who created the heavens and the earth in six Days, then mounted He the Throne. He covereth the night with the day, which is in haste to follow it, and hath made the sun and the moon and the stars subservient by His command. His verily is all creation and commandment. Blessed be Allah, the Lord of the Worlds!
SHAKIR: Surely your Lord is Allah, Who created the heavens and the earth in six periods of time, and He is firm in power; He throws the veil of night over the day, which it pursues incessantly; and (He created) the sun and the moon and the stars, made subservient by His command; surely His is the creation and the command; blessed is Allah, the Lord of the worlds.

010.005
YUSUFALI: It is He Who made the sun to be a shining glory and the moon to be a light (of beauty), and measured out stages for her; that ye might know the number of years and the count (of time). Nowise did Allah create this but in truth and righteousness. (Thus) doth He explain His Signs in detail, for those who understand.
PICKTHAL: He it is Who appointed the sun a splendour and the moon a light, and measured for her stages, that ye might know the number of the years, and the reckoning. Allah created not (all) that save in truth. He detaileth the revelations for people who have knowledge.
SHAKIR: He it is Who made the sun a shining brightness and the moon a light, and ordained for it mansions that you might know the computation of years and the reckoning. Allah did not create it but with truth; He makes the signs manifest for a people who

013.002
YUSUFALI: Allah is He Who raised the heavens without any pillars that ye can see; is firmly established on the throne (of authority); He has subjected the sun and the moon (to his Law)! Each one runs (its course) for a term appointed. He doth regulate all affairs, explaining the signs in detail, that ye may believe with certainty in the meeting with your Lord.
PICKTHAL: Allah it is Who raised up the heavens without visible supports, then mounted the Throne, and compelled the sun and the moon to be of service, each runneth unto an appointed term; He ordereth the course; He detaileth the revelations, that haply ye may be certain of the meeting with your Lord.
SHAKIR: Allah is He Who raised the heavens without any pillars that you see, and He is firm in power and He made the sun and the moon subservient (to you); each one pursues its course to an appointed time; He regulates the affair, making clear the signs that you may be certain of meeting your Lord.

014.033
YUSUFALI: And He hath made subject to you the sun and the moon, both diligently pursuing their courses; and the night and the day hath he (also) made subject to you.
PICKTHAL: And maketh the sun and the moon, constant in their courses, to be of service unto you, and hath made of service unto you the night and the day.
SHAKIR: And He has made subservient to you the sun and the moon pursuing their courses, and He has made subservient to you the night and the day.

021.033
YUSUFALI: It is He Who created the Night and the Day, and the sun and the moon: all (the celestial bodies) swim along, each in its rounded course.
PICKTHAL: And He it is Who created the night and the day, and the sun and the moon. They float, each in an orbit.
SHAKIR: And He it is Who created the night and the day and the sun and the moon; all (orbs) travel along swiftly in their celestial spheres.

031.029
YUSUFALI: Seest thou not that Allah merges Night into Day and he merges Day into Night; that He has subjected the sun, and the moon (to his Law), each running its course for a term appointed; and that Allah is well-acquainted with all that ye do?
PICKTHAL: Hast thou not seen how Allah causeth the night to pass into the day and causeth the day to pass into the night, and hath subdued the sun and the moon (to do their work), each running unto an appointed term; and that Allah is Informed of what ye do?
SHAKIR: Do you not see that Allah makes the night to enter into the day, and He makes the day to enter into the night, and He has made the sun and the moon subservient (to you); each pursues its course till an appointed time; and that Allah is Aware of what you do?

035.013
YUSUFALI: He merges Night into Day, and he merges Day into Night, and he has subjected the sun and the moon (to his Law): each one runs its course for a term appointed. Such is Allah your Lord: to Him belongs all Dominion. And those whom ye invoke besides Him have not the least power.
PICKTHAL: He maketh the night to pass into the day and He maketh the day to pass into the night. He hath subdued the sun and moon to service. Each runneth unto an appointed term. Such is Allah, your Lord; His is the Sovereignty; and those unto whom ye pray instead of Him own not so much as the white spot on a date-stone.
SHAKIR: He causes the night to enter in upon the day, and He causes the day to enter in upon the night, and He has made subservient (to you) the sun and the moon; each one follows its course to an appointed time; this is Allah, your Lord, His is the kingdom; and those whom you call upon besides Him do not control a straw.

036.039
YUSUFALI: And the Moon,- We have measured for her mansions (to traverse) till she returns like the old (and withered) lower part of a date-stalk.
PICKTHAL: And for the moon We have appointed mansions till she return like an old shrivelled palm-leaf.
SHAKIR: And (as for) the moon, We have ordained for it stages till it becomes again as an old dry palm branch.

036.040
YUSUFALI: It is not permitted to the Sun to catch up the Moon, nor can the Night outstrip the Day: Each (just) swims along in (its own) orbit (according to Law).
PICKTHAL: It is not for the sun to overtake the moon, nor doth the night outstrip the day. They float each in an orbit.
SHAKIR: Neither is it allowable to the sun that it should overtake the moon, nor can the night outstrip the day; and all float on in a sphere.

039.005
YUSUFALI: He created the heavens and the earth in true (proportions): He makes the Night overlap the Day, and the Day overlap the Night: He has subjected the sun and the moon (to His law): Each one follows a course for a time appointed. Is not He the Exalted in Power - He Who forgives again and again?
PICKTHAL: He hath created the heavens and the earth with truth. He maketh night to succeed day, and He maketh day to succeed night, and He constraineth the sun and the moon to give service, each running on for an appointed term. Is not He the Mighty, the Forgiver?
SHAKIR: He has created the heavens and the earth with the truth; He makes the night cover the day and makes the day overtake the night, and He has made the sun and the moon subservient; each one runs on to an assigned term; now surely He is the Mighty, the great Forgiver.

055.005
YUSUFALI: The sun and the moon follow courses (exactly) computed;
PICKTHAL: The sun and the moon are made punctual.
SHAKIR: The sun and the moon follow a reckoning.

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Invitation to Islam

016.125
YUSUFALI: Invite (all) to the Way of thy Lord with wisdom and beautiful preaching; and argue with them in ways that are best and most gracious: for thy Lord knoweth best, who have strayed from His Path, and who receive guidance.
PICKTHAL:
Call unto the way of thy Lord with wisdom and fair exhortation, and reason with them in the better way. Lo! thy Lord is Best Aware of him who strayeth from His way, and He is Best Aware of those who go aright.
SHAKIR: Call to the way of your Lord with wisdom and goodly exhortation, and have disputations with them in the best manner; surely your Lord best knows those who go astray from His path, and He knows best those who follow the right way.

002.256
YUSUFALI: Let there be no compulsion in religion: Truth stands out clear from Error: whoever rejects evil and believes in Allah hath grasped the most trustworthy hand-hold, that never breaks. And Allah heareth and knoweth all things.
PICKTHAL: There is no compulsion in religion. The right direction is henceforth distinct from error. And he who rejecteth false deities and believeth in Allah hath grasped a firm handhold which will never break. Allah is Hearer, Knower.
SHAKIR: There is no compulsion in religion; truly the right way has become clearly distinct from error; therefore, whoever disbelieves in the Shaitan and believes in Allah he indeed has laid hold on the firmest handle, which shall not break off, and Allah is Hearing, Knowing.


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Quran

002.002
YUSUFALI: This is the Book; in it is guidance sure, without doubt, to those who fear Allah;
PICKTHAL: This is the Scripture whereof there is no doubt, a guidance unto those who ward off (evil).
SHAKIR: This Book, there is no doubt in it, is a guide to those who guard (against evil).

007.204
YUSUFALI: When the Qur'an is read, listen to it with attention, and hold your peace: that ye may receive Mercy.
PICKTHAL: And when the Qur'an is recited, give ear to it and pay heed, that ye may obtain mercy.
SHAKIR: And when the Quran is recited, then listen to it and remain silent, that mercy may be shown to you.

039.023
YUSUFALI: Allah has revealed (from time to time) the most beautiful Message in the form of a Book, consistent with itself, (yet) repeating (its teaching in various aspects): the skins of those who fear their Lord tremble thereat; then their skins and their hearts do soften to the celebration of Allah's praises. Such is the guidance of Allah: He guides therewith whom He pleases, but such as Allah leaves to stray, can have none to guide.
PICKTHAL: Allah hath (now) revealed the fairest of statements, a Scripture consistent, (wherein promises of reward are) paired (with threats of punishment), whereat doth creep the flesh of those who fear their Lord, so that their flesh and their hearts soften to Allah's reminder. Such is Allah's guidance, wherewith He guideth whom He will. And him whom Allah sendeth astray, for him there is no guide.
SHAKIR: Allah has revealed the best announcement, a book conformable in its various parts, repeating, whereat do shudder the skins of those who fear their Lord, then their skins and their hearts become pliant to the remembrance of Allah; this is Allah's guidance, He guides with it whom He pleases; and (as for) him whom Allah makes err, there is no guide for him.

017.082
YUSUFALI: We send down (stage by stage) in the Qur'an that which is a healing and a mercy to those who believe: to the unjust it causes nothing but loss after loss.
PICKTHAL: And We reveal of the Qur'an that which is a healing and a mercy for believers though it increase the evil-doers in naught save ruin.
SHAKIR: And We reveal of the Quran that which is a healing and a mercy to the believers, and it adds only to the perdition of the unjust.

054.040
YUSUFALI: And We have indeed made the Qur'an easy to understand and remember: then is there any that will receive admonition?
PICKTHAL: And in truth We have made the Qur'an easy to remember; but is there any that remembereth?
SHAKIR: And certainly We have made the Quran easy for remembrance, but is there anyone who will mind?

 

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Abandoned Quran

025.030
YUSUFALI: Then the Messenger will say: "O my Lord! Truly my people took this Qur'an for just foolish nonsense."
PICKTHAL: And the messenger saith: O my Lord! Lo! mine own folk make this Qur'an of no account.
SHAKIR: And the Messenger cried out: O my Lord! surely my people have treated this Quran as a forsaken thing.
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People Practice

006.116
YUSUFALI: Wert thou to follow the common run of those on earth, they will lead thee away from the way of Allah. They follow nothing but conjecture: they do nothing but lie.
PICKTHAL: If thou obeyedst most of those on earth they would mislead thee far from Allah's way. They follow naught but an opinion, and they do but guess.
SHAKIR: And if you obey most of those in the earth, they will lead you astray from Allah's way; they follow but conjecture and they only lie.

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Decisive/Allegorical

003.007
YUSUFALI: He it is Who has sent down to thee the Book: In it are verses basic or fundamental (of established meaning); they are the foundation of the Book: others are allegorical. But those in whose hearts is perversity follow the part thereof that is allegorical, seeking discord, and searching for its hidden meanings, but no one knows its hidden meanings except Allah. And those who are firmly grounded in knowledge say: "We believe in the Book; the whole of it is from our Lord:" and none will grasp the Message except men of understanding.
PICKTHAL: He it is Who hath revealed unto thee (Muhammad) the Scripture wherein are clear revelations - they are the substance of the Book - and others (which are) allegorical. But those in whose hearts is doubt pursue, forsooth, that which is allegorical seeking (to cause) dissension by seeking to explain it. None knoweth its explanation save Allah. And those who are of sound instruction say: We believe therein; the whole is from our Lord; but only men of understanding really heed.
SHAKIR: He it is Who has revealed the Book to you; some of its verses are decisive, they are the basis of the Book, and others are allegorical; then as for those in whose hearts there is perversity they follow the part of it which is allegorical, seeking to mislead and seeking to give it (their own) interpretation. but none knows its interpretation except Allah, and those who are firmly rooted in knowledge say: We believe in it, it is all from our Lord; and none do mind except those having understanding.

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Divorce

002.227
YUSUFALI: But if their intention is firm for divorce, Allah heareth and knoweth all things.
PICKTHAL: And if they decide upon divorce (let them remember that) Allah is Hearer, Knower.
SHAKIR: And if they have resolved on a divorce, then Allah is surely Hearing, Knowing.

002.229
YUSUFALI: A divorce is only permissible twice: after that, the parties should either hold Together on equitable terms, or separate with kindness. It is not lawful for you, (Men), to take back any of your gifts (from your wives), except when both parties fear that they would be unable to keep the limits ordained by Allah. If ye (judges) do indeed fear that they would be unable to keep the limits ordained by Allah, there is no blame on either of them if she give something for her freedom. These are the limits ordained by Allah; so do not transgress them if any do transgress the limits ordained by Allah, such persons wrong (Themselves as well as others).
PICKTHAL: Divorce must be pronounced twice and then (a woman) must be retained in honour or released in kindness. And it is not lawful for you that ye take from women aught of that which ye have given them; except (in the case) when both fear that they may not be able to keep within the limits (imposed by) Allah. And if ye fear that they may not be able to keep the limits of Allah, in that case it is no sin for either of them if the woman ransom herself. These are the limits (imposed by) Allah. Transgress them not. For whoso transgresseth Allah's limits: such are wrong-doers.
SHAKIR: Divorce may be (pronounced) twice, then keep (them) in good fellowship or let (them) go with kindness; and it is not lawful for you to take any part of what you have given them, unless both fear that they cannot keep within the limits of Allah; then if you fear that they cannot keep within the limits of Allah, there is no blame on them for what she gives up to become free thereby. These are the limits of Allah, so do not exceed them and whoever exceeds the limits of Allah these it is that are the unjust.

002.230
YUSUFALI: So if a husband divorces his wife (irrevocably), He cannot, after that, re-marry her until after she has married another husband and He has divorced her. In that case there is no blame on either of them if they re-unite, provided they feel that they can keep the limits ordained by Allah. Such are the limits ordained by Allah, which He makes plain to those who understand.
PICKTHAL: And if he hath divorced her (the third time), then she is not lawful unto him thereafter until she hath wedded another husband. Then if he (the other husband) divorce her it is no sin for both of them that they come together again if they consider that they are able to observe the limits of Allah. These are the limits of Allah. He manifesteth them for people who have knowledge.
SHAKIR: So if he divorces her she shall not be lawful to him afterwards until she marries another husband; then if he divorces her there is no blame on them both if they return to each other (by marriage), if they think that they can keep within the limits of Allah, and these are the limits of Allah which He makes clear for a people who know.

002.231
YUSUFALI: When ye divorce women, and they fulfil the term of their ('Iddat), either take them back on equitable terms or set them free on equitable terms; but do not take them back to injure them, (or) to take undue advantage; if any one does that; He wrongs his own soul. Do not treat Allah's Signs as a jest, but solemnly rehearse Allah's favours on you, and the fact that He sent down to you the Book and Wisdom, for your instruction. And fear Allah, and know that Allah is well acquainted with all things.
PICKTHAL: When ye have divorced women, and they have reached their term, then retain them in kindness or release them in kindness. Retain them not to their hurt so that ye transgress (the limits). He who doeth that hath wronged his soul. Make not the revelations of Allah a laughing-stock (by your behaviour), but remember Allah's grace upon you and that which He hath revealed unto you of the Scripture and of wisdom, whereby He doth exhort you. Observe your duty to Allah and know that Allah is Aware of all things.
SHAKIR: And when you divorce women and they reach their prescribed time, then either retain them in good fellowship or set them free with liberality, and do not retain them for injury, so that you exceed the limits, and whoever does this, he indeed is unjust to his own soul; and do not take Allah's communications for a mockery, and remember the favor of Allah upon you, and that which He has revealed to you of the Book and the Wisdom, admonishing you thereby; and be careful (of your duty to) Allah, and know that Allah is the Knower of all things.

002.232
YUSUFALI: When ye divorce women, and they fulfil the term of their ('Iddat), do not prevent them from marrying their (former) husbands, if they mutually agree on equitable terms. This instruction is for all amongst you, who believe in Allah and the Last Day. That is (the course Making for) most virtue and purity amongst you and Allah knows, and ye know not.
PICKTHAL: And when ye have divorced women and they reach their term, place not difficulties in the way of their marrying their husbands if it is agreed between them in kindness. This is an admonition for him among you who believeth in Allah and the Last Day. That is more virtuous for you, and cleaner. Allah knoweth; ye know not.
SHAKIR: And when you have divorced women and they have ended-- their term (of waiting), then do not prevent them from marrying their husbands when they agree among themselves in a lawful manner; with this is admonished he among you who believes in Allah and the last day, this is more profitable and purer for you; and Allah knows while you do not know.

002.236
YUSUFALI: There is no blame on you if ye divorce women before consummation or the fixation of their dower; but bestow on them (A suitable gift), the wealthy according to his means, and the poor according to his means;- A gift of a reasonable amount is due from those who wish to do the right thing.
PICKTHAL: It is no sin for you if ye divorce women while yet ye have not touched them, nor appointed unto them a portion. Provide for them, the rich according to his means, and the straitened according to his means, a fair provision. (This is) a bounden duty for those who do good.
SHAKIR: There is no blame on you if you divorce women when you have not touched them or appointed for them a portion, and make provision for them, the wealthy according to his means and the straitened in circumstances according to his means, a provision according to usage; (this is) a duty on the doers of good (to others).

002.237
YUSUFALI: And if ye divorce them before consummation, but after the fixation of a dower for them, then the half of the dower (Is due to them), unless they remit it or (the man's half) is remitted by him in whose hands is the marriage tie; and the remission (of the man's half) is the nearest to righteousness. And do not forget Liberality between yourselves. For Allah sees well all that ye do.
PICKTHAL: If ye divorce them before ye have touched them and ye have appointed unto them a portion, then (pay the) half of that which ye appointed, unless they (the women) agree to forgo it, or he agreeth to forgo it in whose hand is the marriage tie. To forgo is nearer to piety. And forget not kindness among yourselves. Allah is Seer of what ye do.
SHAKIR: And if you divorce them before you have touched them and you have appointed for them a portion, then (pay to them) ha!f of what you have appointed, unless they relinquish or he should relinquish in whose hand is the marriage tie; and it is nearer to righteousness that you should relinquish; and do not neglect the giving of free gifts between you; surely Allah sees what you do.

033.004
YUSUFALI: Allah has not made for any man two hearts in his (one) body: nor has He made your wives whom ye divorce by Zihar your mothers: nor has He made your adopted sons your sons. Such is (only) your (manner of) speech by your mouths. But Allah tells (you) the Truth, and He shows the (right) Way.
PICKTHAL: Allah hath not assigned unto any man two hearts within his body, nor hath He made your wives whom ye declare (to be your mothers) your mothers, nor hath He made those whom ye claim (to be your sons) your sons. This is but a saying of your mouths. But Allah saith the truth and He showeth the way.
SHAKIR: Allah has not made for any man two hearts within him; nor has He made your wives whose backs you liken to the backs of your mothers as your mothers, nor has He made those whom you assert to be your sons your real sons; these are the words of your mouths; and Allah speaks the truth and He guides to the way.

033.037
YUSUFALI: Behold! Thou didst say to one who had received the grace of Allah and thy favour: "Retain thou (in wedlock) thy wife, and fear Allah." But thou didst hide in thy heart that which Allah was about to make manifest: thou didst fear the people, but it is more fitting that thou shouldst fear Allah. Then when Zaid had dissolved (his marriage) with her, with the necessary (formality), We joined her in marriage to thee: in order that (in future) there may be no difficulty to the Believers in (the matter of) marriage with the wives of their adopted sons, when the latter have dissolved with the necessary (formality) (their marriage) with them. And Allah's command must be fulfilled.
PICKTHAL: And when thou saidst unto him on whom Allah hath conferred favour and thou hast conferred favour: Keep thy wife to thyself, and fear Allah. And thou didst hide in thy mind that which Allah was to bring to light, and thou didst fear mankind whereas Allah hath a better right that thou shouldst fear Him. So when Zeyd had performed that necessary formality (of divorce) from her, We gave her unto thee in marriage, so that (henceforth) there may be no sin for believers in respect of wives of their adopted sons, when the latter have performed the necessary formality (of release) from them. The commandment of Allah must be fulfilled.
SHAKIR: And when you said to him to whom Allah had shown favor and to whom you had shown a favor: Keep your wife to yourself and be careful of (your duty to) Allah; and you concealed in your soul what Allah would bring to light, and you feared men, and Allah had a greater right that you should fear Him. But when Zaid had accomplished his want of her, We gave her to you as a wife, so that there should be no difficulty for the believers in respect of the wives of their adopted sons, when they have accomplished their want of them; and Allah's command shall be performed.

033.049
YUSUFALI: O ye who believe! When ye marry believing women, and then divorce them before ye have touched them, no period of 'Iddat have ye to count in respect of them: so give them a present. And set them free in a handsome manner.
PICKTHAL: O ye who believe! If ye wed believing women and divorce them before ye have touched them, then there is no period that ye should reckon. But content them and release them handsomely.
SHAKIR: O you who believe! when you marry the believing women, then divorce them before you touch them, you have in their case no term which you should reckon; so make some provision for them and send them forth a goodly sending forth.

058.002
YUSUFALI: If any men among you divorce their wives by Zihar (calling them mothers), they cannot be their mothers: None can be their mothers except those who gave them birth. And in fact they use words (both) iniquitous and false: but truly Allah is one that blots out (sins), and forgives (again and again).
PICKTHAL: Such of you as put away your wives (by saying they are as their mothers) - They are not their mothers; none are their mothers except those who gave them birth - they indeed utter an ill word and a lie. And lo! Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.
SHAKIR: (As for) those of you who put away their wives by likening their backs to the backs of their mothers, they are not their mothers; their mothers are no others than those who gave them birth; and most surely they utter a hateful word and a falsehood and most surely Allah is Pardoning, Forgiving.

058.003
YUSUFALI: But those who divorce their wives by Zihar, then wish to go back on the words they uttered,- (It is ordained that such a one) should free a slave before they touch each other: Thus are ye admonished to perform: and Allah is well-acquainted with (all) that ye do.
PICKTHAL: Those who put away their wives (by saying they are as their mothers) and afterward would go back on that which they have said, (the penalty) in that case (is) the freeing of a slave before they touch one another. Unto this ye are exhorted; and Allah is Informed of what ye do.
SHAKIR: And (as for) those who put away their wives by likening their backs to the backs of their mothers then would recall what they said, they should free a captive before they touch each other; to that you are admonished (to conform); and Allah is Aware of what you do.

065.001
YUSUFALI: O Prophet! When ye do divorce women, divorce them at their prescribed periods, and count (accurately), their prescribed periods: And fear Allah your Lord: and turn them not out of their houses, nor shall they (themselves) leave, except in case they are guilty of some open lewdness, those are limits set by Allah: and any who transgresses the limits of Allah, does verily wrong his (own) soul: thou knowest not if perchance Allah will bring about thereafter some new situation.
PICKTHAL: O Prophet! When ye (men) put away women, put them away for their (legal) period and reckon the period, and keep your duty to Allah, your Lord. Expel them not from their houses nor let them go forth unless they commit open immorality. Such are the limits (imposed by) Allah; and whoso transgresseth Allah's limits, he verily wrongeth his soul. Thou knowest not: it may be that Allah will afterward bring some new thing to pass.
SHAKIR: O Prophet! when you divorce women, divorce them for~ their prescribed time, and calculate the number of the days prescribed, and be careful of (your duty to) Allah, your Lord. Do not drive them out of their houses, nor should they themselves go forth, unless they commit an open indecency; and these are the limits of Allah, and whoever goes beyond the limits of Allah, he indeed does injustice to his own soul. You do not know that Allah may after that bring about reunion.

066.005
YUSUFALI: It may be, if he divorced you (all), that Allah will give him in exchange consorts better than you,- who submit (their wills), who believe, who are devout, who turn to Allah in repentance, who worship (in humility), who travel (for Faith) and fast,- previously married or virgins.
PICKTHAL: It may happen that his Lord, if he divorce you, will give him in your stead wives better than you, submissive (to Allah), believing, pious, penitent, devout, inclined to fasting, widows and maids.
SHAKIR: Maybe, his Lord, if he divorce you, will give him in your place wives better than you, submissive, faithful, obedient, penitent, adorers, fasters, widows and virgins.


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Islamic Calendar

Five Year Islamic lunar Calendar.

Islamic Calendar for 1427-1432 A.H.  
The criterion is moon birth before 12:00 Noon (GMT).
Islamic Months                             Conjunction Date (GMT) 1st Day of Islamic Month          Gregorian DateWeekday

Muharram 1429                             January 8, 2008 11:37 Muharram 1, 1429                             January 9, 2008(WED)
Safar 1429                                     February 7, 2008 3:44 Safar 1, 1429                                    February 8, 2008 (FRI)
Rabi-al-Awwal 1429                     March 7, 2008 17:14 Rabi-al-Awwal 1, 1429                       March 9, 2008 (SUN)
Rabi-al-Thani 1429                        April 6, 2008 3:55 Rabi-al-Thani 1, 1429                             April 7, 2008(MON)
Jumada-al-oola 1429                     May 5, 2008 12:18 Jumada-al-oola 1, 1429                         May 7, 2008(WED)
Jumada-al-Ukhra 1429                  June 3, 2008 19:22 Jumada-al-Ukhra 1, 1429                      June 5, 2008 (THU)
Rajab 1429                                    July 3, 2008 2:18 Rajab 1, 1429                                          July 4, 2008 (FRI)
Sha'ban 1429                                 August 1, 2008 10:12 Sha'ban 1, 1429                                August 2, 2008 (SAT)
Ramadan 1429                      August 30, 2008 19:58 Ramadan 1, 1429               September 1, 2008(MON)
Shawwal 1429                                September 29, 2008 8:12 Shawwal 1, 1429                       September 30, 2008 (TUE)
Dhul-Qi'dah 1429                           October 28, 2008 23:13 Dhul-Qi'dah 1, 1429                    October 30, 2008 (THU)
Dhul-Hijjah 1429                            November 27, 2008 16:54 Dhul-Hijjah 1, 1429                 November 29, 2008 (SAT)
Muharram 1430                              December 27, 2008 12:22 Muharram 1, 1430                   December 29, 2008(MON)
Safar 1430                                     January 26, 2009 7:55 Safar 1, 1430                                  January 27, 2009 (TUE)
Rabi-al-Awwal 1430                      February 25, 2009 1:35 Rabi-al-Awwal 1, 1430                February 26, 2009 (THU)
Rabi-al-Thani 1430                         March 26, 2009 16:05 Rabi-al-Thani 1, 1430                    March 28, 2009 (SAT)
Jumada-al-oola 1430                      April 25, 2009 3:22 Jumada-al-oola 1, 1430                      April 26, 2009 (SUN)
Jumada-al-Ukhra 1430                   May 24, 2009 12:11 Jumada-al-Ukhra 1, 1430                 May 26, 2009(TUE)
Rajab 1430                                     June 22, 2009 19:34 Rajab 1, 1430                                  June 24, 2009(WED)
Sha'ban 1430                                  July 22, 2009 2:34 Sha'ban 1, 1430                                  July 23, 2009 (THU)
Ramadan 1430                                August 20, 2009 10:01 Ramadan 1, 1430                         August 21, 2009 (FRI)
Shawwal 1430                                 September 18, 2009 18:44 Shawwal 1, 1430                   September 20, 2009 (SUN)
Dhul-Qi'dah 1430                            October 18, 2009 5:33 Dhul-Qi'dah 1, 1430                    October 19, 2009(MON)
Dhul-Hijjah 1430                             November 16, 2009 19:13 Dhul-Hijjah 1, 1430               November 18, 2009(WED)
Muharram 1431                               December 16, 2009 12:02 Muharram 1, 1431                 December 18, 2009 (FRI)
Safar 1431                                       January 15, 2010 7:11 Safar 1, 1431                               January 16, 2010 (SAT)
Rabi-al-Awwal 1431                        February 14, 2010 2:51 Rabi-al-Awwal 1, 1431             February 15, 2010(MON)
Rabi-al-Thani 1431                          March 15, 2010 21:01 Rabi-al-Thani 1, 1431                  March 17, 2010(WED)
Jumada-al-oola 1431                       April 14, 2010 12:28 Jumada-al-oola 1, 1431                  April 16, 2010 (FRI)
Jumada-al-Ukhra 1431                    May 14, 2010 1:04 Jumada-al-Ukhra 1, 1431                 May 15, 2010 (SAT)
Rajab 1431                                     June 12, 2010 11:14 Rajab 1, 1431                                 June 13, 2010 (SUN)
Sha'ban 1431                                  July 11, 2010 19:40 Sha'ban 1, 1431                               July 13, 2010 (TUE)
Ramadan 1431                                August 10, 2010 3:07 Ramadan 1, 1431                          August 11, 2010(WED)
Shawwal 1431                                 September 8, 2010 10:29 Shawwal 1, 1431                    September 9, 2010 (THU)
Dhul-Qi'dah 1431                            October 7, 2010 18:44 Dhul-Qi'dah 1, 1431                   October 9, 2010 (SAT)
Dhul-Hijjah 1431                             November 6, 2010 4:51 Dhul-Hijjah 1, 1431                  November 7, 2010 (SUN)
Muharram 1432                               December 5, 2010 17:35 Muharram 1, 1432                  December 7, 2010 (TUE)
Safar 1432                                       January 4, 2011 9:02 Safar 1, 1432                                January 5, 2011(WED)
Rabi-al-Awwal 1432                       February 3, 2011 2:30 Rabi-al-Awwal 1, 1432               February 4, 2011 (FRI)
Rabi-al-Thani 1432                          March 4, 2011 20:45 Rabi-al-Thani 1, 1432                   March 6, 2011 (SUN)
Jumada-al-oola 1432                       April 3, 2011 14:32 Jumada-al-oola 1, 1432                   April 5, 2011(TUE)
Jumada-al-Ukhra 1432                    May 3, 2011 6:50 Jumada-al-Ukhra 1, 1432                  May 4, 2011(WED)
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Quran / US Constitution

Dear Readers.

     This is not an effort to prove that US constitution is based upon the Holy Quran or the founding fathers were Muslims. This document simply shows the principles of US Constitution and the principles as ordained by the Holy Quran. Religion is a matter of personal choice, a liberty, which, both, US Constitution and the Holy Quran grants. Most American muslims, I know, uphold the constitution of the United States of America. You will see how the Holy Quran addresses the equality of mankind and equality of men and women, a democratic process to elect a band of people, justice for all people, equal rights regardless of race, language or color – the basic tenets of Islam. The equality of mankind which many nations do not approve even today.

 

Is this final form of this document?

NO! If I have made a mistake some place due to lack of understanding, please discuss it on QuranSaysThis@yahoogroups.com and correct it.

 

What is Allah?

AL = The;  Lah = Worthy of Worship.   Allah [Arabic] = The Worthy of Worship or The God [English].

 

What is this document?

A simple document to show the principles of US Constitution and the Principles of the Holy Quran side by side. It is not meant to be a comparison.

 

When we, Americans, see the Article 11 of the Treaty of Tripoli, ratified  by United States June 10, 1797, we naturally ask, what were our founding fathers inspired by? Did some of them read the Holy Quran to understand it? Here are few pointers:

 

Treaty of Tripoli can be seen at:

http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/diplomacy/barbary/bar1796t.htm

 

ARTICLE 11.

As the government of the United States of America is not in any sense founded on the Christian Religion,-as it has in itself no character of enmity against the laws, religion or tranquility of Musselmen,-and as the said States never have entered into any war or act of hostility against any Mehomitan nation, it is declared by the parties that no pretext arising from religious opinions shall ever produce an interruption of the harmony existing between the two countries.

 

We, also find that many founding fathers either possessed a copy of the Holy Quran and supported freedom, liberty and know that it is also ordained in the holy Quran.  They had knowledge of what the Quran says, few examples are:

 

Thomas Jefferson’s Quran:

http://www.breitbart.com/news/2007/01/04/D8MEPKIG0.html

 

John Adam’s had the Holy Quran:

http://www.johnadamslibrary.org/search/books/?category=Religion or

http://www.johnadamslibrary.org/book/?book=ocm03548445Adams%20281.1

 

The following links show some discussions about Muslims:

Letters of Delegates to Congress: Volume 22 November 1, 1784 - November 6, 1785

Richard Henry Lee to James Madison: [cut and paste the link, the link itself does not work when clicked]

http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?ammem/hlaw:@field(DOCID+@lit(dg02222))     ç include the two brackets.

 

A Letter Concerning Toleration by John Locke 1689

http://www.constitution.org/jl/tolerati.htm

Knowing about Islam and the Holy Quran, deliberate decisions were made to provide religious freedom by our founding fathers and thus reflected in our constitution:

The Virginia Act For Establishing Religious Freedom Thomas Jefferson, 1786

http://religiousfreedom.lib.virginia.edu/sacred/vaact.html

 

Memorial and Remonstrance Against Religious Assessments James Madison 1785

http://religiousfreedom.lib.virginia.edu/sacred/madison_m&r_1785.html

 

Frieze showing Muhammad on the supreme court’s North Wall Frieze:

http://www.supremecourtus.gov/about/north&southwalls.pdf

 

All are equal

002.136: Say ye: "We believe in Allah, and the revelation given to us, and to Abraham, Isma'il, Isaac, Jacob, and the Tribes, and that given to Moses and Jesus, and that given to (all) prophets from their Lord: We make no difference between one and another of them: And we bow to Allah (in Islam)."

 
In God we Trust

10:85 They responded, "In God we trust. O Our Lord! Save us from the oppression of the oppressor.”

 

All references to translation are taken from:  http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/quran/  - Comments in Square Brackets are mine and usually follow a verse from the Holy Quran, where these comments were taken from.  I do not claim any copyright in this document, you may distribute it freely.

 

Similar efforts

US Constitution and Islam, A study by Arif Humaun.

http://www.islamandusconstitution.com/chap7.htm

 

An effort to define a democratic constitution for muslim countries.

http://www.progressivemuslims.org/constitution.htm

 

Another effort by Ali Eteraz – defining law for Muslim Countries and taking a poll about form of Government in the Muslim countries:

http://www.eteraz.org/tag/mclp

http://www.eteraz.org/?op=displaystory;sid=2007/2/24/16648/5038

 

Peace,

Farooq Sarwar Khan

farooqsarwarkhan@yahoo.com

January 01, 2006

Principles from  the US Constitution

Principle from The Holy Quran

Preamble

 

We the People of the United States,

The Holy Quran addresses mankind as plural, in two distinct manner:

 

1. The smaller subset of all of the people, as in “O those, who accept this message or believe in this message”, for example :

 

   61:2 O ye who believe! Why say ye that which ye do not?

 

 

2.   The larger set of All of Mankind, for example:

     

    4:174 O people! surely there has come to you manifest proof from your Lord and We have sent to you clear light..

 

Primary audience of the Holy Quran is All of the People, the society and not merely the individuals.

 

in Order to form a more perfect Union,

3:103 And hold fast by the covenant of Allah all together and be not disunited, and remember the favor of Allah on you when you were enemies, then He united your hearts so by His favor you became brethren; and you were on the brink of a pit of fire, then He saved you from it, thus does Allah make clear to you His communications that you may follow the right way.

establish Justice,

 

4:58 Surely Allah commands you to make over trusts to their owners and that when you judge between people you judge with justice; surely Allah admonishes you with what is excellent; surely Allah is Seeing, Hearing.

057.025 We sent aforetime our messengers with Clear Signs and sent down with them the Book and the Balance (of Right and Wrong), that men may stand forth in justice; and We sent down Iron, in which is (material for) mighty war, as well as many benefits for mankind, that Allah may test who it is that will help, Unseen, Him and His messengers: For Allah is Full of Strength, Exalted in Might (and able to enforce His Will).

 

005.008  O ye who believe! stand out firmly for Allah, as witnesses to fair dealing, and let not the hatred of others to you make you swerve to wrong and depart from justice. Be just: that is next to piety: and fear Allah. For Allah is well-acquainted with all that ye do.

 

Insure domestic Tranquility,

2:248  And the prophet said to them: Surely the sign of His kingdom is, that there shall come to you the chest in which there is tranquility from your Lord and residue of the relics of what the children of Musa and the children of Haroun have left, the angels bearing it; most surely there is a sign in this for those who believe.

 

70: 28 For their Lord's displeasure is the opposite of Peace and Tranquillity;

provide for the common defense, promote the general Welfare,

9:60  Alms [charity or taxes] are for

-          the poor

-          and the needy,

-          and those employed to administer the (funds);

-          for those whose hearts have been (recently) reconciled (to Truth);

-          for those in bondage

-          and in debt;

-          in the cause of Allah [for common defence of the Ideological State] ;

-          and for the wayfarer:

(thus is it) ordained by Allah, and Allah is full of knowledge and wisdom.

 

008.060 [Keep your boundaries well-guarded by reinforced cantonments] Against them make ready your strength to the utmost of your power, including steeds of war, to strike terror into (the hearts of) the enemies, of Allah and your enemies, and others besides, whom ye may not know, but whom Allah doth know. Whatever ye shall spend in the cause of Allah, shall be repaid unto you, and ye shall not be treated unjustly.

and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America

024.055 Allah has promised to those of you who believe and do good that He will most certainly make them rulers in the earth as He made rulers those before them, and that He will most certainly establish for them their religion which He has chosen for them, and that He will most certainly, after their fear, give them security in exchange; they shall serve Me, not associating aught with Me; and whoever is ungrateful after this, these it is who are the. transgressors.

003.139 So lose not heart, nor fall into despair: For ye must gain mastery if ye are true in Faith.

021.105 Before this We wrote in the Psalms, after the Message (given to Moses): My servants the righteous, shall inherit the earth."

 

13.29 "For those who believe and work righteousness, is (every) blessedness, and a beautiful place of (final) return."

Article. I.

Section. 1. All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.

 

Establishment of Legislative Body:

 

3.104 Let there arise out of you a band of people inviting to all that is good, enjoining what is right, and forbidding what is wrong: They are the ones to attain felicity.

42.38 Those who hearken to their Lord, and establish regular Prayer; who (conduct) their affairs by mutual Consultation; who spend out of what We bestow on them for Sustenance; 

004.059 O ye who believe! Obey Allah, and obey the Messenger, and those charged with authority among you. If ye differ in anything among yourselves, refer it to Allah and His Messenger, if ye do believe in Allah and the Last Day: That is best, and most suitable for final determination.

Section. 2. The House of Representatives shall be composed of Members chosen every second Year by the People of the several States, and the Electors in each State shall have the Qualifications requisite for Electors of the most numerous Branch of the State Legislature.

 

004.058  Allah doth command you to render back your Trusts[vote] to those to whom they are due; And when ye judge between man and man, that ye judge with justice: Verily how excellent is the teaching which He giveth you! For Allah is He Who heareth and seeth all things.

.

46.19   And to all are (assigned) degrees according to the deeds which they (have done), and in order that (Allah) may recompense their deeds, and no injustice be done to them.

 

 

No Person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the Age of twenty five Years, and been seven Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen.

 

Sections 1-7 describe the composition and administrative structure of the Congress of the United States comprising of two elected houses of representatives, the Congress and the Senate.  These sections define: membership (based on population), qualifications, term of office, replacement during the term, code of conduct, etc., and a procedure for framing new Laws, based on the following principles:

    1. Consultation
    2. Qualified, honest and dedicated individuals
    3. Equitable distribution of national resources (direct taxes)
    4. Impartiality of representative; objectivity and honesty
    5. Compensation for service 

 

Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other Persons [Modified by Amendment XIV]. The actual Enumeration shall be made within three Years after the first Meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent Term of ten Years, in such Manner as they shall by Law direct. The Number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty Thousand, but each State shall have at Least one Representative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to chuse three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode-Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New-York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, South Carolina five, and Georgia three.

1. Consultation:

42.38 Those who hearken to their Lord, and establish regular Prayer; who (conduct) their affairs by mutual Consultation; who spend out of what We bestow on them for Sustenance; 

003.159  It is part of the Mercy of Allah that thou dost deal gently with them Wert thou severe or harsh-hearted, they would have broken away from about thee: so pass over (Their faults), and ask for (Allah's) forgiveness for them; and consult them in affairs (of moment). Then, when thou hast Taken a decision put thy trust in Allah. For Allah loves those who put their trust (in Him).

 

004.059 O ye who believe! Obey Allah, and obey the Messenger, and those charged with authority among you. If ye differ in anything among yourselves, refer it to Allah and His Messenger, if ye do believe in Allah and the Last Day: That is best, and most suitable for final determination.

 

  1. Qualified, honest and dedicated individuals

049.013 O mankind! We created you from a single (pair) of a male and a female, and made you into nations and tribes, that ye may know each other (not that ye may despise (each other). Verily the most honoured of you in the sight of Allah is (he who is) the most righteous of you. And Allah has full knowledge and is well acquainted (with all things).

 

 

  1. Equitable distribution of national resources (direct taxes) 

009.103 Of their goods, take alms[Charity or Taxes], that so thou mightest purify and sanctify them; and pray on their behalf. Verily thy prayers are a source of security for them: And Allah is One Who heareth and knoweth.

 

059.007  What Allah has bestowed on His Messenger (and taken away) from the people of the townships,- belongs to Allah,- to His Messenger and to kindred and orphans, the needy and the wayfarer; In order that it may not (merely) make a circuit between the wealthy among you. So take what the Messenger assigns to you, and deny yourselves that which he withholds from you. And fear Allah; for Allah is strict in Punishment.

 

002.188 And do not eat up your property among yourselves for vanities, nor use it as bait for the judges, with intent that ye may eat up wrongfully and knowingly a little of (other) people's property.

 

  1. Impartiality of representative; objectivity and honesty

005.008  O ye who believe! stand out firmly for Allah, as witnesses to fair dealing, and let not the hatred of others to you make you swerve to wrong and depart from justice. Be just: that is next to piety: and fear Allah. For Allah is well-acquainted with all that ye do.

 

  1. Compensation for service

028.026: Said one of them: O my father! employ him, surely the best of those that you can employ is the strong man, the faithful one.

 

When vacancies happen in the Representation from any State, the Executive Authority thereof shall issue Writs of Election to fill such Vacancies.

 

The House of Representatives shall chuse their Speaker and other Officers; and shall have the sole Power of Impeachment.

 

Section. 3. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof [Modified by Amendment XVII], for six Years; and each Senator shall have one Vote.

[Two representatives or witnesses is the rule of the Holy Quran.]

002.282 O ye who believe! When ye deal with each other, in transactions involving future obligations in a fixed period of time, reduce them to writing Let a scribe write down faithfully as between the parties: let not the scribe refuse to write: as Allah Has taught him, so let him write. Let him who incurs the liability dictate, but let him fear His Lord Allah, and not diminish aught of what he owes. If the party liable is mentally deficient, or weak, or unable Himself to dictate, Let his guardian dictate faithfully, and get two witnesses, out of your own men, and if there are not two men, then a man and two women, such as ye choose, for witnesses, so that if one of them errs, the other can remind her. The witnesses should not refuse when they are called on (For evidence). Disdain not to reduce to writing (your contract) for a future period, whether it be small or big: it is juster in the sight of Allah, More suitable as evidence, and more convenient to prevent doubts among yourselves but if it be a transaction which ye carry out on the spot among yourselves, there is no blame on you if ye reduce it not to writing. But take witness whenever ye make a commercial contract; and let neither scribe nor witness suffer harm. If ye do (such harm), it would be wickedness in you. So fear Allah; For it is Good that teaches you. And Allah is well acquainted with all things. If ye are on a journey, and cannot find a scribe, a pledge with possession (may serve the purpose). And if one of you deposits a thing on trust with another, let the trustee (faithfully) discharge his trust, and let him Fear his Lord conceal not evidence; for whoever conceals it, - his heart is tainted with sin. And Allah knoweth all that ye do.

 

 

005.106  O you who believe! call to witness between you when death draws nigh to one of you, at the time of making the will, two just persons from among you, or two others from among others than you, if you are travelling in the land and the calamity of death befalls you; the two (witnesses) you should detain after the prayer; then if you doubt (them), they shall both swear by Allah, (saying): We will not take for it a price, though there be a relative, and we will not hide the testimony of Allah for then certainly we should be among the sinners.

 

 

Immediately after they shall be assembled in Consequence of the first Election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three Classes. The Seats of the Senators of the first Class shall be vacated at the Expiration of the second Year, of the second Class at the Expiration of the fourth Year, and of the third Class at the Expiration of the sixth Year, so that one third may be chosen every second Year; and if Vacancies happen by Resignation, or otherwise, during the Recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make temporary Appointments until the next Meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such Vacancies [Modified by Amendment XVII].

 

 

No Person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty Years, and been nine Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen.

46.015:: And We have enjoined on man doing of good to his parents; with trouble did his mother bear him and with trouble did she bring him forth; and the bearing of him and the weaning of him was thirty months; until when he attains his maturity and reaches forty years, he says: My Lord! grant me that I may give thanks for Thy favor which Thou hast bestowed on me and on my parents, and that I may do good which pleases Thee and do good to me in respect of my offspring; surely I turn to Thee, and surely I am of those who submit.

 

The Vice President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no Vote, unless they be equally divided.

 

The Senate shall chuse their other Officers, and also a President pro tempore, in the Absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the Office of President of the United States.

 

The Senate shall have the sole Power to try all Impeachments. When sitting for that Purpose, they shall be on Oath or Affirmation. When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside: And no Person shall be convicted without the Concurrence of two thirds of the Members present.

 

Judgment in Cases of Impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from Office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any Office of honor, Trust or Profit under the United States: but the Party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to Indictment, Trial, Judgment and Punishment, according to Law.

 

Section. 4. The Times, Places and Manner of holding Elections for Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by Law make or alter such Regulations, except as to the Places of chusing Senators.

 

003.159 Thus it is due to mercy from Allah that you deal with them gently, and had you been rough, hard hearted, they would certainly have dispersed from around you; pardon them therefore and ask pardon for them, and take counsel with them in the affair; so when you have decided, then place your trust in Allah; surely Allah loves those who trust.

The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Year, and such Meeting shall be on the first Monday in December [Modified by Amendment XX], unless they shall by Law appoint a different Day.

 

Section. 5. Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections, Returns and Qualifications of its own Members, and a Majority of each shall constitute a Quorum to do Business; but a smaller Number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the Attendance of absent Members, in such Manner, and under such Penalties as each House may provide.

5.43 But why do they come to thee for decision, when they have (their own) law before them?- therein is the (plain) command of Allah; yet even after that, they would turn away. For they are not (really) People of Faith.

5.044 It was We who revealed the law (to Moses): therein was guidance and light. By its standard have been judged the Jews, by the prophets who bowed (as in Islam) to Allah's will, by the rabbis and the doctors of law: for to them was entrusted the protection of Allah's book, and they were witnesses thereto: therefore fear not men, but fear me, and sell not my signs for a miserable price. If any do fail to judge by (the light of) what Allah hath revealed, they are (no better than) Unbelievers.

5.47  Let the people of the Gospel judge by what Allah hath revealed therein. If any do fail to judge by (the light of) what Allah hath revealed, they are (no better than) those who rebel.

10.19 Mankind was but one nation, but differed (later). Had it not been for a word that went forth before from thy Lord, their differences would have been settled between them

Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceedings, punish its Members for disorderly Behaviour, and, with the Concurrence of two thirds, expel a Member.

 

Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such Parts as may in their Judgment require Secrecy; and the Yeas and Nays of the Members of either House on any question shall, at the Desire of one fifth of those Present, be entered on the Journal.

 

Neither House, during the Session of Congress, shall, without the Consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other Place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.

 

Section. 6. The Senators and Representatives shall receive a Compensation for their Services, to be ascertained by Law, and paid out of the Treasury of the United States. They shall in all Cases, except Treason, Felony and Breach of the Peace, be privileged from Arrest during their Attendance at the Session of their respective Houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any Speech or Debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in any other Place.

002.202  To these will be allotted what they have earned; and Allah is quick in account.

 

 

 

 

026.152  "Who make mischief in the land, and mend not (their ways)."

 

038.028  Shall We treat those who believe and work deeds of righteousness, the same as those who do mischief on earth? Shall We treat those who guard against evil, the same as those who turn aside from the right?

 

No Senator or Representative shall, during the Time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil Office under the Authority of the United States, which shall have been created, or the Emoluments whereof shall have been encreased during such time; and no Person holding any Office under the United States, shall be a Member of either House during his Continuance in Office.

 

Section. 7. All Bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with Amendments as on other Bills.

 

Every Bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it become a Law, be presented to the President of the United States: If he approve he shall sign it, but if not he shall return it, with his Objections to that House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the Objections at large on their Journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such Reconsideration two thirds of that House shall agree to pass the Bill, it shall be sent, together with the Objections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two thirds of that House, it shall become a Law. But in all such Cases the Votes of both Houses shall be determined by yeas and Nays, and the Names of the Persons voting for and against the Bill shall be entered on the Journal of each House respectively. If any Bill shall not be returned by the President within ten Days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the Same shall be a Law, in like Manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their Adjournment prevent its Return, in which Case it shall not be a Law.

 

Every Order, Resolution, or Vote to which the Concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of Adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the United States; and before the Same shall take Effect, shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the Rules and Limitations prescribed in the Case of a Bill.

 

Section. 8. The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for the common Defence and general Welfare of the United States; but all Duties, Imposts and Excises shall be uniform throughout the United States;

2.215   They ask thee what they should spend (In charity [or Taxes]). Say: Whatever ye spend that is good, is for parents and kindred and orphans and those in want and for wayfarers. And whatever ye do that is good, -Allah knoweth it well.

 

9:60  Alms [taxes] are for

-          the poor

-          and the needy,

-          and those employed to administer the (funds);

-          for those whose hearts have been (recently) reconciled (to Truth);

-          for those in bondage

-          and in debt;

-          in the cause of Allah [To defend the Ideological State] ;

-          and for the wayfarer:

(thus is it) ordained by Allah, and Allah is full of knowledge and wisdom.

 

8.041: And know that whatever thing you gain, a fifth of it is for Allah and for the Messenger and for the near of kin and the orphans and the needy and the wayfarer, if you believe in Allah and in that which We revealed to Our servant, on the day of distinction, the day on which the two parties met; and Allah has power over all things.

 

002.273  (Charity [Tax] is) for those in need, who, in Allah's cause are restricted (from travel), and cannot move about in the land, seeking (For trade or work): the ignorant man thinks, because of their modesty, that they are free from want. Thou shalt know them by their (Unfailing) mark: They beg not importunately from all the sundry. And whatever of good ye give, be assured Allah knoweth it well.

 

002.277  Those who believe, and do deeds of righteousness, and establish regular prayers and regular charity [Taxes to grow the economy], will have their reward with their Lord: on them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve.

To borrow Money on the credit of the United States;

002.245 Who is he that will loan to Allah a beautiful loan, which Allah will double unto his credit and multiply many times? It is Allah that giveth (you) Want or plenty, and to Him shall be your return.

.

2:282 O you who believe! when you deal with each other in contracting a debt for a fixed time, then write it down; and let a scribe write it down between you with fairness; and the scribe should not refuse to write as Allah has taught him, so he should write; and let him who owes the debt dictate, and he should be careful of (his duty to) Allah, his Lord, and not diminish anything from it; but if he who owes the debt is unsound in understanding, or weak, or (if) he is not able to dictate himself, let his guardian dictate with fairness; and call in to witness from among your men two witnesses; but if there are not two men, then one man and two women from among those whom you choose to be witnesses, so that if one of the two errs, the second of the two may remind the other; and the witnesses should not refuse when they are summoned; and be not averse to writing it (whether it is) small or large, with the time of its falling due; this is more equitable in the sight of Allah and assures greater accuracy in testimony, and the nearest (way) that you may not entertain doubts (afterwards), except when it is ready merchandise which you give and take among yourselves from hand to hand, then there is no blame on you in not writing it down; and have witnesses when you barter with one another, and let no harm be done to the scribe or to the witness; and if you do (it) then surely it will be a transgression in you, and be careful of (your duty) to Allah, Allah teaches you, and Allah knows all things.

 

To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes;

9:4  (But the treaties are) not dissolved with those foreign nations with whom ye have entered into treaties and who have not subsequently failed you in aught, nor aided any one against you. So fulfil your agreements with them to the end of their term: for Allah loveth the righteous.

 

 

To establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization, and uniform Laws on the subject of Bankruptcies throughout the United States;

9:11 If they mend their ways, and as law-abiding citizens help consolidate the Divine System, and the Just Economic Order of Zakat, then they are your brothers in the System of life. We explain Our Revelations for those who wish to learn.

 

002.280 If the debtor is in a difficulty, grant him time Till it is easy for him to repay. But if ye remit it by way of charity, that is best for you if ye only knew

 

4:29  O ye who believe! Eat not up your property among yourselves in vanities: But let there be amongst you Traffic and trade by mutual good-will: Nor kill (or destroy) yourselves: for verily Allah hath been to you Most Merciful!

 

To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of foreign Coin, and fix the Standard of Weights and Measures;

55.8 That you may not be inordinate in respect of the measure.

55.9  And keep up the balance with equity and do not make the measure deficient.

 

6:152. And do not approach the property of the orphan except in the best manner until he attains his maturity, and give full measure and weight with justice-- We do not impose on any soul a duty except to the extent of its ability; and when you speak, then be just though it be (against) a relative, and fulfill Allah's covenant; this He has enjoined you with that you may be mindful;

 

83.1 Woe to those that deal in fraud,-

83.2  Those who, when they have to receive by measure from men, exact full

83.3  But when they have to give by measure or weight to men, give less than due.

83.4  Do they not think that they will be called to account?-

83.5 On a Mighty Day,

 

To provide for the Punishment of counterfeiting the Securities and current Coin of the United States;

3.75 And among the followers of the Book there are some such that if you entrust one (of them) with a heap of wealth, he shall pay it back to you; and among them there are some such that if you entrust one (of them) with a dinar[single gold coin] he shall not pay it back to you except so long as you remain firm in demanding it; this is because they say: There is not upon us in the matter of the unlearned people any way (to reproach); and they tell a lie against Allah while they know.

 

To establish Post Offices and post Roads;

16.15 And He hath cast into the earth firm hills that it quake not with you, and streams and roads that ye may find a way.

017.070  Verily we have honoured the Children of Adam. We carry them on the land and the sea, and have made provision of good things for them, and have preferred them above many of those whom We created with a marked preferment.

 

To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries;

28.80 And those who were given the knowledge said: Woe to you! Allah's reward is better for him who believes and does good, and none is made to receive this except the patient.

 

20.114 Supremely exalted is therefore Allah, the King, the Truth, and do not make haste with the Quran before its revelation is made complete to you and say: O my Lord ! increase me in knowledge.

 

96.1 Read in the name of your Lord Who created.

 

39.33 And he who brings the Truth and he who confirms (and supports) it - such are the men who do right.

 

3.18  There is no god but He: That is the witness of Allah, His angels, and those endued with knowledge, standing firm on justice. There is no god but He, the Exalted in Power, the Wise.

To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme Court;

2:43 And establish the Divine System, and set up the Just Economic Order in the society. And bow with others who bow to these Commands.

 

To define and punish Piracies and Felonies committed on the high Seas, and Offences against the Law of Nations;

10:22 He it is Who makes you travel by land and sea; until when you are in the ships, and they sail on with them in a pleasant breeze, and they rejoice, a violent wind overtakes them and the billows surge in on them from all sides, and they become certain that they are encompassed about, they pray to Allah, being sincere to Him in obedience: If Thou dost deliver us from this, we will most certainly be of the grateful ones.

 

14.32  Allah is He Who created the heavens and the earth and sent down water from the clouds, then brought forth with it fruits as a sustenance for you, and He has made the ships subservient to you, that they might run their course in the sea by His command, and He has made the rivers subservient to you.

 

030.041  Corruption doth appear on land and sea because of (the evil) which men's hands have done, that He may make them taste a part of that which they have done, in order that they may return.

 

To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal, and make Rules concerning Captures on Land and Water;

22:39 Permission (to fight) is given to those upon whom war is made because they are oppressed, and most surely Allah is well able to assist them;

 

4.09 Except those who seek refuge with a people between whom and you there is a covenant, or (those who) come unto you because their hearts forbid them to make war on you or make war on their own folk. Had Allah willed He could have given them power over you so that assuredly they would have fought you. So, if they hold aloof from you and wage not war against you and offer you peace, Allah alloweth you no way against them.

 

8.67 It is not fit for a prophet that he should take captives unless he has fought and triumphed in the land; you desire the frail goods of this world, while Allah desires (for you) the hereafter; and Allah is Mighty, Wise.

60.8 Allah does not forbid you respecting those who have not made war against you on account of (your) religion, and have not driven you forth from your homes, that you show them kindness and deal with them justly; surely Allah loves the doers of justice.

To raise and support Armies, but no Appropriation of Money to that Use shall be for a longer Term than two Years;

2:194 You may fight during the Months of Peace and Security if you are attacked, for, a violation of sanctity will activate the Law of Just Retribution. So, the one who attacks you should expect retaliation in like manner. Be mindful of Allah, and know that Allah is with those who walk aright.

To provide and maintain a Navy;

To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land and naval Forces;

017.070 And surely We have honored the children of Adam, and We carry them in the land and the sea, and We have given them of the good things, and We have made them to excel by an appropriate excellence over most of those whom We have created.

To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions; To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the Militia, and for governing such Part of them as may be employed in the Service of the United States, reserving to the States respectively, the Appointment of the Officers, and the Authority of training the Militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress;

 

8.065: O Prophet! urge the believers to war; if there are twenty patient ones of you they shall overcome two hundred, and if there are a hundred of you they shall overcome a thousand of those who disbelieve, because they are a people who do not understand.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases whatsoever, over such District (not exceeding ten Miles square) as may, by Cession of particular States, and the Acceptance of Congress, become the Seat of the Government of the United States, and to exercise like Authority over all Places purchased by the Consent of the Legislature of the State in which the Same shall be, for the Erection of Forts, Magazines, Arsenals, dock-Yards, and other needful Buildings;--And

 

To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof.

 

Section. 9. The Migration or Importation of such Persons as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the Year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a Tax or duty may be imposed on such Importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each Person.

4:100 Anyone who emigrates in the Cause of Allah, will find that Allah has placed refuge and abundance in the earth. Whoever forsakes his home, as 'An immigrant to Allah and His Messenger', and death overtakes him, his reward is then incumbent upon Allah. Allah is ever Forgiving, Merciful

The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety may require it.

005.008 : O ye who believe! stand out firmly for Allah, as witnesses to fair dealing, and let not the hatred of others to you make you swerve to wrong and depart from justice. Be just: that is next to piety: and fear Allah. For Allah is well-acquainted with all that ye do.

 

070.033 : And those who are upright in their testimonies,

002.042 : And do not mix up the truth with the falsehood, nor hide the truth while you know (it).

 

 

 

No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law shall be passed.

038.026 : o Dawood ! surely We have made you a ruler in the land; so judge between men with justice and do not follow desire, lest it should lead you astray from the path of Allah; (as for) those who go astray from the path of Allah, they shall surely have a severe punishment because they forgot the day of reckoning.

 

No Capitation, or other direct, Tax shall be laid, unless in Proportion to the Census or Enumeration herein before directed to be taken.

 

No Tax or Duty shall be laid on Articles exported from any State.

 

No Preference shall be given by any Regulation of Commerce or Revenue to the Ports of one State over those of another; nor shall Vessels bound to, or from, one State, be obliged to enter, clear, or pay Duties in another.

 

No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in Consequence of Appropriations made by Law; and a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time.

 

No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United States: And no Person holding any Office of Profit or Trust under them, shall, without the Consent of the Congress, accept of any present, Emolument, Office, or Title, of any kind whatever, from any King, Prince, or foreign State.

 

Section. 10. No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance, or Confederation; grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal; coin Money; emit Bills of Credit; make any Thing but gold and silver Coin a Tender in Payment of Debts; pass any Bill of Attainder, ex post facto Law, or Law impairing the Obligation of Contracts, or grant any Title of Nobility.

 

No State shall, without the Consent of the Congress, lay any Imposts or Duties on Imports or Exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing it's inspection Laws; and the net Produce of all Duties and Imposts, laid by any State on Imports or Exports, shall be for the Use of the Treasury of the United States; and all such Laws shall be subject to the Revision and Controul of the Congress.

 

No State shall, without the Consent of Congress, lay any Duty of Tonnage, keep Troops, or Ships of War in time of Peace, enter into any Agreement or Compact with another State, or with a foreign Power, or engage in War, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent Danger as will not admit of delay.

 

Article. II.

Section. 1. The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. He shall hold his Office during the Term of four Years, and, together with the Vice President, chosen for the same Term, be elected, as follows:

 

049.013  O mankind! We created you from a single (pair) of a male and a female, and made you into nations and tribes, that ye may know each other (not that ye may despise (each other). Verily the most honoured of you in the sight of Allah is (he who is) the most righteous of you. And Allah has full knowledge and is well acquainted (with all things).

 

 

 

Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress: but no Senator or Representative, or Person holding an Office of Trust or Profit under the United States, shall be appointed an Elector.

 

The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by Ballot for two Persons, of whom one at least shall not be an Inhabitant of the same State with themselves. And they shall make a List of all the Persons voted for, and of the Number of Votes for each; which List they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the Seat of the Government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the Presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the Certificates, and the Votes shall then be counted. The Person having the greatest Number of Votes shall be the President, if such Number be a Majority of the whole Number of Electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such Majority, and have an equal Number of Votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately chuse by Ballot one of them for President; and if no Person have a Majority, then from the five highest on the List the said House shall in like Manner chuse the President. But in chusing the President, the Votes shall be taken by States, the Representation from each State having one Vote; a quorum for this Purpose shall consist of a Member or Members from two thirds of the States, and a Majority of all the States shall be necessary to a Choice. In every Case, after the Choice of the President, the Person having the greatest Number of Votes of the Electors shall be the Vice President. But if there should remain two or more who have equal Votes, the Senate shall chuse from them by Ballot the Vice President [Modified by Amendment XII].

 

The Congress may determine the Time of chusing the Electors, and the Day on which they shall give their Votes; which Day shall be the same throughout the United States.

 

 

 

No Person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United States, at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of President; neither shall any Person be eligible to that Office who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty five Years, and been fourteen Years a Resident within the United States.

46.015 And We have enjoined on man doing of good to his parents; with trouble did his mother bear him and with trouble did she bring him forth; and the bearing of him and the weaning of him was thirty months; until when he attains his maturity and reaches forty years, he says: My Lord! grant me that I may give thanks for Thy favor which Thou hast bestowed on me and on my parents, and that I may do good which pleases Thee and do good to me in respect of my offspring; surely I turn to Thee, and surely I am of those who submit.

In Case of the Removal of the President from Office, or of his Death, Resignation, or Inability to discharge the Powers and Duties of the said Office, the Same shall devolve on the Vice President, and the Congress may by Law provide for the Case of Removal, Death, Resignation or Inability, both of the President and Vice President, declaring what Officer shall then act as President, and such Officer shall act accordingly, until the Disability be removed, or a President shall be elected [Modified by Amendment XXV].

 

The President shall, at stated Times, receive for his Services, a Compensation, which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the Period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that Period any other Emolument from the United States, or any of them.

 

Before he enter on the Execution of his Office, he shall take the following Oath or Affirmation:--"I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States."

 

Section. 2. The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the several States, when called into the actual Service of the United States; he may require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in each of the executive Departments, upon any Subject relating to the Duties of their respective Offices, and he shall have Power to grant Reprieves and Pardons for Offences against the United States, except in Cases of Impeachment.

 

He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court, and all other Officers of the United States, whose Appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by Law: but the Congress may by Law vest the Appointment of such inferior Officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the Courts of Law, or in the Heads of Departments.

 

The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies that may happen during the Recess of the Senate, by granting Commissions which shall expire at the End of their next Session.

 

Section. 3. He shall from time to time give to the Congress Information of the State of the Union, and recommend to their Consideration such Measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary Occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them, and in Case of Disagreement between them, with Respect to the Time of Adjournment, he may adjourn them to such Time as he shall think proper; he shall receive Ambassadors and other public Ministers; he shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed, and shall Commission all the Officers of the United States.

 

Section. 4. The President, Vice President and all civil Officers of the United States, shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for, and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors.

 

Article. III.

Section. 1. The judicial Power of the United States shall be vested in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The Judges, both of the supreme and inferior Courts, shall hold their Offices during good Behaviour, and shall, at stated Times, receive for their Services a Compensation, which shall not be diminished during their Continuance in Office.

 

Section. 2. The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law and Equity, arising under this Constitution, the Laws of the United States, and Treaties made, or which shall be made, under their Authority;--to all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls;--to all Cases of admiralty and maritime Jurisdiction;--to Controversies to which the United States shall be a Party;--to Controversies between two or more States;--between a State and Citizens of another State [Modified by Amendment XI];--between Citizens of different States;--between Citizens of the same State claiming Lands under Grants of different States, and between a State, or the Citizens thereof, and foreign States, Citizens or Subjects.

 

In all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, and those in which a State shall be Party, the supreme Court shall have original Jurisdiction. In all the other Cases before mentioned, the supreme Court shall have appellate Jurisdiction, both as to Law and Fact, with such Exceptions, and under such Regulations as the Congress shall make.

 

The Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment, shall be by Jury; and such Trial shall be held in the State where the said Crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any State, the Trial shall be at such Place or Places as the Congress may by Law have directed.

 

Section. 3. Treason against the United States shall consist only in levying War against them, or in adhering to their Enemies, giving them Aid and Comfort. No Person shall be convicted of Treason unless on the Testimony of two Witnesses to the same overt Act, or on Confession in open Court.

008.058 : And if you fear treachery on the part of a people, then throw back to them on terms of equality; surely Allah does not love the treacherous.

 

005.033 The punishment of those who wage war against Allah and His messenger and strive to make mischief in the land is only this, that they should be murdered or crucified or their hands and their feet should be cut off on opposite sides or they should be imprisoned; this shall be as a disgrace for them in this world, and in the hereafter they shall have a grievous chastisement.

 

The Congress shall have Power to declare the Punishment of Treason, but no Attainder of Treason shall work Corruption of Blood, or Forfeiture except during the Life of the Person attainted.

 

Article. IV.

Section. 1. Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each State to the public Acts, Records, and judicial Proceedings of every other State. And the Congress may by general Laws prescribe the Manner in which such Acts, Records and Proceedings shall be proved, and the Effect thereof.

 

Section. 2. The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all Privileges and Immunities of Citizens in the several States.

 

A Person charged in any State with Treason, Felony, or other Crime, who shall flee from Justice, and be found in another State, shall on Demand of the executive Authority of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the State having Jurisdiction of the Crime.

 

No Person held to Service or Labour in one State, under the Laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in Consequence of any Law or Regulation therein, be discharged from such Service or Labour, but shall be delivered up on Claim of the Party to whom such Service or Labour may be due [Modified by Amendment XIII].

 

Section. 3. New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but no new State shall be formed or erected within the Jurisdiction of any other State; nor any State be formed by the Junction of two or more States, or Parts of States, without the Consent of the Legislatures of the States concerned as well as of the Congress.

 

The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and make all needful Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory or other Property belonging to the United States; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to Prejudice any Claims of the United States, or of any particular State.

 

Section. 4. The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican Form of Government, and shall protect each of them against Invasion; and on Application of the Legislature, or of the Executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened), against domestic Violence.

003.159  Thus it is due to mercy from Allah that you deal with them gently, and had you been rough, hard hearted, they would certainly have dispersed from around you; pardon them therefore and ask pardon for them, and take counsel with them in the affair; so when you have decided, then place your trust in Allah; surely Allah loves those who trust.

 

Article. V.

The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Constitution, or, on the Application of the Legislatures of two thirds of the several States, shall call a Convention for proposing Amendments, which, in either Case, shall be valid to all Intents and Purposes, as Part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of three fourths of the several States, or by Conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one or the other Mode of Ratification may be proposed by the Congress; Provided that no Amendment which may be made prior to the Year One thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any Manner affect the first and fourth Clauses in the Ninth Section of the first Article; and that no State, without its Consent, shall be deprived of its equal Suffrage in the Senate [Possibly abrogated by Amendment XVII].

 

 

Article. VI.

All Debts contracted and Engagements entered into, before the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this Constitution, as under the Confederation.

 

This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be made in Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be made, under the Authority of the United States, shall be the supreme Law of the Land; and the Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any Thing in the Constitution or Laws of any State to the Contrary notwithstanding.

 

The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the Members of the several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial Officers, both of the United States and of the several States, shall be bound by Oath or Affirmation, to support this Constitution; but no religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any Office or public Trust under the United States.

 

Article. VII.

The Ratification of the Conventions of nine States, shall be sufficient for the Establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying the Same.

 

 

The Word, "the," being interlined between the seventh and eighth Lines of the first Page, The Word "Thirty" being partly written on an Erazure in the fifteenth Line of the first Page, The Words "is tried" being interlined between the thirty second and thirty third Lines of the first Page and the Word "the" being interlined between the forty third and forty fourth Lines of the second Page.

 

 

done in Convention by the Unanimous Consent of the States present the Seventeenth Day of September in the Year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and Eighty seven and of the Independence of the United States of America the Twelfth In witness whereof We have hereunto subscribed our Names,

 

 

Amendment I

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances

 

018.029 : Say, "The truth is from your Lord": Let him who will believe, and let him who will, reject (it): for the wrong-doers We have prepared a Fire whose (smoke and flames), like the walls and roof of a tent, will hem them in: if they implore relief they will be granted water like melted brass, that will scald their faces, how dreadful the drink! How uncomfortable a couch to recline on!

 

109.004: And I will not worship that which ye have been wont to worship,

109.005: Nor will ye worship that which I worship.

109.006 : You shall have your religion and I shall have my religion

 

002.256 : There is no compulsion in religion; truly the right way has become clearly distinct from error; therefore, whoever disbelieves in the Shaitan and believes in Allah he indeed has laid hold on the firmest handle, which shall not break off, and Allah is Hearing, Knowing.

 

022.040 Those who have been expelled from their homes without a just cause except that they say: Our Lord is Allah. And had there not been Allah's repelling some people by others, certainly there would have been pulled down cloisters and churches and synagogues and mosques in which Allah's name is much remembered; and surely Allah will help him who helps His cause; most surely Allah is Strong, Mighty..

 

049.011: O ye who believe! Let not some men among you laugh at others: It may be that the (latter) are better than the (former): Nor let some women laugh at others: It may be that the (latter are better than the (former): Nor defame nor be sarcastic to each other, nor call each other by (offensive) nicknames: Ill-seeming is a name connoting wickedness, (to be used of one) after he has believed: And those who do not desist are (indeed) doing wrong.

 

030.022 : And among His Signs is the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the variations in your languages and your colours: verily in that are Signs for those who know.

 

Amendment II

A well regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed.

 

008.060: Against them make ready your strength to the utmost of your power, including steeds of war, to strike terror into (the hearts of) the enemies, of Allah and your enemies, and others besides, whom ye may not know, but whom Allah doth know. Whatever ye shall spend in the cause of Allah, shall be repaid unto you, and ye shall not be treated unjustly.

008.065: O Prophet! rouse the Believers to the fight. If there are twenty amongst you, patient and persevering, they will vanquish two hundred: if a hundred, they will vanquish a thousand of the Unbelievers: for these are a people without understanding.

22:39 Permission (to fight) is given to those upon whom war is made because they are oppressed, and most surely Allah is well able to assist them;

 

002.190 : Fight in the cause of Allah those who fight you, but do not transgress limits; for Allah loveth not transgressors.

 

2:194 You may fight during the Months of Peace and Security if you are attacked, for, a violation of sanctity will activate the Law of Just Retribution. So, the one who attacks you should expect retaliation in like manner. Be mindful of Allah, and know that Allah is with those who walk aright.

 

 

 

Amendment III

No soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

 

 

024.027 O ye who believe! enter not houses other than your own, until ye have asked permission and saluted those in them: that is best for you, in order that ye may heed (what is seemly).

 

4.29 O you who believe! do not devour your property among yourselves falsely, except that it be trading by your mutual consent; and do not kill your people; surely Allah is Merciful to you.

008.072 : Those who believed, and adopted exile, and fought for the Faith, with their property and their persons, in the cause of Allah, as well as those who gave (them) asylum and aid,- these are (all) friends and protectors, one of another. As to those who believed but came not into exile, ye owe no duty of protection to them until they come into exile; but if they seek your aid in religion, it is your duty to help them, except against a people with whom ye have a treaty of mutual alliance. And (remember) Allah seeth all that ye do.

 

9.34 O you who believe! most surely many of the doctors of law and the monks eat away the property of men falsely, and turn (them) from Allah's way; and (as for) those who hoard up gold and silver and do not spend it in Allah's way, announce to them a painful chastisement,

 

024.029: It is no fault on your part to enter houses not used for living in, which serve some (other) use for you: And Allah has knowledge of what ye reveal and what ye conceal.

 

Amendment IV

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.

 

 

024.027 O ye who believe! enter not houses other than your own, until ye have asked permission and saluted those in them: that is best for you, in order that ye may heed (what is seemly).

024.028  : If ye find no one in the house, enter not until permission is given to you: if ye are asked to go back, go back: that makes for greater purity for yourselves: and Allah knows well all that ye do.

049.012: O ye who believe! Avoid suspicion as much (as possible): for suspicion in some cases is a sin: And spy not on each other behind their backs. Would any of you like to eat the flesh of his dead brother? Nay, ye would abhor it...But fear Allah: For Allah is Oft-Returning, Most Merciful.

024.029 : It is no fault on your part to enter houses not used for living in, which serve some (other) use for you: And Allah has knowledge of what ye reveal and what ye conceal.

 

 

Amendment V

No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service in time of war or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.

 

017.070: And surely We have honored the children of Adam, and We carry them in the land and the sea, and We have given them of the good things, and We have made them to excel by an appropriate excellence over most of those whom We have created.

 

 

 

 

024.027 O ye who believe! enter not houses other than your own, until ye have asked permission and saluted those in them: that is best for you, in order that ye may heed (what is seemly).

 

 

Life and Rape.

025.068

YUSUFALI: Those who invoke not, with Allah, any other god, nor slay such life as Allah has made sacred except for just cause, nor commit fornication; - and any that does this (not only) meets punishment.

 

Life:

005.032: On that account: We ordained for the Children of Israel that if any one slew a person - unless it be for murder or for spreading mischief in the land - it would be as if he slew the whole people: and if any one saved a life, it would be as if he saved the life of the whole people. Then although there came to them Our messengers with clear signs, yet, even after that, many of them continued to commit excesses in the land.

 

Liberty:

002.256: Let there be no compulsion in religion: Truth stands out clear from Error: whoever rejects evil and believes in Allah hath grasped the most trustworthy hand-hold, that never breaks. And Allah heareth and knoweth all things.

 

Protection of property

002.188: And do not eat up your property among yourselves for vanities, nor use it as bait for the judges, with intent that ye may eat up wrongfully and knowingly a little of (other) people's property.

009.034: O ye who believe! there are indeed many among the priests and anchorites, who in Falsehood devour the substance of men and hinder (them) from the way of Allah. And there are those who bury gold and silver and spend it not in the way of Allah: announce unto them a most grievous penalty-

006.152

YUSUFALI: And come not nigh to the orphan's property, except to improve it, until he attain the age of full strength; give measure and weight with (full) justice;- no burden do We place on any soul, but that which it can bear;- whenever ye speak, speak justly, even if a near relative is concerned; and fulfil the covenant of Allah: thus doth He command you, that ye may remember.

 

003.014 : The love of desires, of women and sons and hoarded treasures of gold and silver and well bred horses and cattle and tilth, is made to seem fair to men; this is the provision of the life of this world; and Allah is He with Whom is the good goal (of life).

 

Amendment VI

In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the state and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense.

 

004.058 : Allah doth command you to render back your Trusts to those to whom they are due; And when ye judge between man and man, that ye judge with justice: Verily how excellent is the teaching which He giveth you! For Allah is He Who heareth and seeth all things.

 

026.012 He said: "O my Lord! I do fear that they will charge me with falsehood:

026.013:  "My breast will be straitened. And my speech may not go (smoothly): so send unto Aaron [as my counsel].

 

Amendment VII

In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise reexamined in any court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.

 

021.078 : And remember David and Solomon, when they gave judgment in the matter of the field into which the sheep of certain people had strayed by night: We did witness their judgment.

021.079 : To Solomon We inspired the (right) understanding of the matter: to each (of them) We gave Judgment and Knowledge; it was Our power that made the hills and the birds celebrate Our praises, with David: it was We Who did (all these things).

 

Amendment VIII

Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.

 

005.087 : O ye who believe! make not unlawful the good things which Allah hath made lawful for you, but commit no excess: for Allah loveth not those given to excess.

 

016.126: And if ye do catch them out, catch them out no worse than they catch you out: But if ye show patience, that is indeed the best (course) for those who are patient

Amendment IX

The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.

 

5.8: O you who believe! Be upright for Allah, bearers of witness with justice, and let not hatred of a people incite you not to act equitably; act equitably, that is nearer to piety, and he careful of (your duty to) Allah; surely Allah is Aware of what you do.

 

 

Amendment X

The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people.

 

017.070: And surely We have honored the children of Adam, and We carry them in the land and the sea, and We have given them of the good things, and We have made them to excel by an appropriate excellence over most of those whom We have created.

Amendment XI

The judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by citizens of another state, or by citizens or subjects of any foreign state.

 

5.43 But why do they come to thee for decision, when they have (their own) law before them?- therein is the (plain) command of Allah; yet even after that, they would turn away. For they are not (really) People of Faith.

5.044 It was We who revealed the law (to Moses): therein was guidance and light. By its standard have been judged the Jews, by the prophets who bowed (as in Islam) to Allah's will, by the rabbis and the doctors of law: for to them was entrusted the protection of Allah's book, and they were witnesses thereto: therefore fear not men, but fear me, and sell not my signs for a miserable price. If any do fail to judge by (the light of) what Allah hath revealed, they are (no better than) Unbelievers.

5.47  Let the people of the Gospel judge by what Allah hath revealed therein. If any do fail to judge by (the light of) what Allah hath revealed, they are (no better than) those who rebel.

10.19 Mankind was but one nation, but differed (later). Had it not been for a word that went forth before from thy Lord, their differences would have been settled between them.

 

 

Annunciation of Emencipation

024.033  And let those who cannot find a match keep chaste till Allah give them independence by His grace. And such of your slaves as seek a writing of emancipation, write it for them if ye are aware of aught of good in them, and bestow upon them of the wealth of Allah which He hath bestowed upon you. Force not your slave-girls to whoredom that ye may seek enjoyment of the life of the world, if they would preserve their chastity. And if one force them, then (unto them), after their compulsion, lo! Allah will be Forgiving to these women), Merciful.

 

Employers and Employees:

043.032 Is it they who apportion thy Lord's mercy? We have apportioned among them their livelihood in the life of the world, and raised some of them above others in rank that some of them may take labour from others; and the mercy of thy Lord is better than (the wealth) that they amass.

 

Guard the trust.

023.008: Those who faithfully observe their trusts and their covenants;

 

President?

049.013 : O mankind! We created you from a single (pair) of a male and a female, and made you into nations and tribes, that ye may know each other (not that ye may despise (each other). Verily the most honoured of you in the sight of Allah is (he who is) the most righteous of you. And Allah has full knowledge and is well acquainted (with all things).

018.028  And withhold yourself with those who call on their Lord morning and evening desiring His goodwill, and let not your eyes pass from them, desiring the beauties of this world's life; and do not follow him whose heart We have made unmindful to Our remembrance, and he follows his low desires and his case is one in which due bounds are exceeded.

 

Justice:

057.025: We sent aforetime our messengers with Clear Signs and sent down with them the Book and the Balance (of Right and Wrong), that men may stand forth in justice; and We sent down Iron, in which is (material for) mighty war, as well as many benefits for mankind, that Allah may test who it is that will help, Unseen, Him and His messengers: For Allah is Full of Strength, Exalted in Might (and able to enforce His Will).

013.011 For his sake there are angels following one another, before him and behind him, who guard him by Allah's commandment; surely Allah does not change the condition of a people until they change their own condition; and when Allah intends evil to a people, there is no averting it, and besides Him they have no protector.

 

Lang or Color

030.022 : And among His Signs is the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the variations in your languages and your colours: verily in that are Signs for those who know.

 

Justice without prejudice

005.008: O ye who believe! stand out firmly for Allah, as witnesses to fair dealing, and let not the hatred of others to you make you swerve to wrong and depart from justice. Be just: that is next to piety: and fear Allah. For Allah is well-acquainted with all that ye do.

 

Protection of religion.

022.040 Those who have been expelled from their homes without a just cause except that they say: Our Lord is Allah. And had there not been Allah's repelling some people by others, certainly there would have been pulled down cloisters and churches and synagogues and mosques in which Allah's name is much remembered; and surely Allah will help him who helps His cause; most surely Allah is Strong, Mighty.

 

All men and women are created equal.

017.070: And surely We have honored the children of Adam, and We carry them in the land and the sea, and We have given them of the good things, and We have made them to excel by an appropriate excellence over most of those whom We have created.

 

Guard your Boundaries.

008.060: Against them make ready your strength to the utmost of your power, including steeds of war, to strike terror into (the hearts of) the enemies, of Allah and your enemies, and others besides, whom ye may not know, but whom Allah doth know. Whatever ye shall spend in the cause of Allah, shall be repaid unto you, and ye shall not be treated unjustly.

 

Terms of Equality with people and nations.

008.058: And if you fear treachery on the part of a people, then throw back to them on terms of equality; surely Allah does not love the treacherous.

 

Treatment of Rebellious People

005.033 The punishment of those who wage war against Allah and His messenger and strive to make mischief in the land is only this, that they should be murdered or crucified or their hands and their feet should be cut off on opposite sides or they should be imprisoned; this shall be as a disgrace for them in this world, and in the hereafter they shall have a grievous chastisement,

 5.34 Except those who repent before you have them in your power; so know that Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.

 

Keep your covenants and treaties.

023.008: Those who faithfully observe their trusts and their covenants;

 

Do not rotate wealth among wealthy(s).

059.007 : What Allah has bestowed on His Messenger (and taken away) from the people of the townships,- belongs to Allah,- to His Messenger and to kindred and orphans, the needy and the wayfarer; In order that it may not (merely) make a circuit between the wealthy among you. So take what the Messenger assigns to you, and deny yourselves that which he withholds from you. And fear Allah; for Allah is strict in Punishment.

 

Life and Rape.

025.068: Those who invoke not, with Allah, any other god, nor slay such life as Allah has made sacred except for just cause, nor commit fornication; - and any that does this (not only) meets punishment.

 

Life.

005.032: On that account: We ordained for the Children of Israel that if any one slew a person - unless it be for murder or for spreading mischief in the land - it would be as if he slew the whole people: and if any one saved a life, it would be as if he saved the life of the whole people. Then although there came to them Our messengers with clear signs, yet, even after that, many of them continued to commit excesses in the land.

 

Liberty

002.256: Let there be no compulsion in religion: Truth stands out clear from Error: whoever rejects evil and believes in Allah hath grasped the most trustworthy hand-hold, that never breaks. And Allah heareth and knoweth all things.

 

Protection of property

002.188: And do not eat up your property among yourselves for vanities, nor use it as bait for the judges, with intent that ye may eat up wrongfully and knowingly a little of (other) people's property.

009.034: O ye who believe! there are indeed many among the priests and anchorites, who in Falsehood devour the substance of men and hinder (them) from the way of Allah. And there are those who bury gold and silver and spend it not in the way of Allah: announce unto them a most grievous penalty-

006.152: And come not nigh to the orphan's property, except to improve it, until he attain the age of full strength; give measure and weight with (full) justice;- no burden do We place on any soul, but that which it can bear;- whenever ye speak, speak justly, even if a near relative is concerned; and fulfil the covenant of Allah: thus doth He command you, that ye may remember.

 

Collect taxes from their income.

009.103: Of their goods, take alms, that so thou mightest purify and sanctify them; and pray on their behalf. Verily thy prayers are a source of security for them: And Allah is One Who heareth and knoweth.

 

Put folks to work.

053.039: That man can have nothing but what he strives for;

 

You bear the burden of your deeds.

006.164 : Say: What! shall I seek a Lord other than Allah? And He is the Lord of all things; and no soul earns (evil) but against itself, and no bearer of burden shall bear the burden of another; then to your Lord is your return, so He will inform you of that in which you differed.

 

Measure

017.035  And give full measure when you measure out, and weigh with a true balance; this is fair and better in the end.

007.085: To the Madyan people We sent Shu'aib, one of their own brethren: he said: "O my people! worship Allah; Ye have no other god but Him. Now hath come unto you a clear (Sign) from your Lord! Give just measure and weight, nor withhold from the people the things that are their due; and do no mischief on the earth after it has been set in order: that will be best for you, if ye have Faith.

 

Wine and Gambling

002.219: They ask thee concerning wine and gambling. Say: "In them is great sin, and some profit, for men; but the sin is greater than the profit." They ask thee how much they are to spend; Say: "What is beyond your needs." Thus doth Allah Make clear to you His Signs: In order that ye may consider-

 

Equal Status of Men and Women

003.195 So their Lord accepted their prayer: That I will not waste the work of a worker among you, whether male or female, the one of you being from the other; they, therefore, who fled and were turned out of their homes and persecuted in My way and who fought and were slain, I will most certainly cover their evil deeds, and I will most certainly make them enter gardens beneath which rivers flow; a reward from Allah, and with Allah is yet better reward.

004.124: If any do deeds of righteousness,- be they male or female - and have faith, they will enter Heaven, and not the least injustice will be done to them.

040.040: "He that works evil will not be requited but by the like thereof: and he that works a righteous deed - whether man or woman - and is a Believer- such will enter the Garden (of Bliss): Therein will they have abundance without measure.

033.035: For Muslim men and women,- for believing men and women, for devout men and women, for true men and women, for men and women who are patient and constant, for men and women who humble themselves, for men and women who give in Charity, for men and women who fast (and deny themselves), for men and women who guard their chastity, and for men and women who engage much in Allah's praise,- for them has Allah prepared forgiveness and great reward.

009.071 And (as for) the believing men and the believing women, they are guardians of each other; they enjoin good and forbid evil and keep up prayer and pay the poor-rate, and obey Allah and His Messenger; (as for) these, Allah will show mercy to them; surely Allah is Mighty, Wise.

 

Defend with your Property

009.020: Those who believe, and have left their homes and striven with their wealth and their lives in Allah's way are of much greater worth in Allah's sight. These are they who are triumphant.

002.190 : Fight in the way of Allah against those who fight against you, but begin not hostilities. Lo! Allah loveth not aggressors.

 

All are Equal – Most Honoured is by one’s deeds.

049.013: O mankind! We created you from a single (pair) of a male and a female, and made you into nations and tribes, that ye may know each other (not that ye may despise (each other). Verily the most honoured of you in the sight of Allah is (he who is) the most righteous of you. And Allah has full knowledge and is well acquainted (with all things).

 

Respect other’s opinion and religion

049.011 YUSUFALI: O ye who believe! Let not some men among you laugh at others: It may be that the (latter) are better than the (former): Nor let some women laugh at others: It may be that the (latter are better than the (former): Nor defame nor be sarcastic to each other, nor call each other by (offensive) nicknames: Ill-seeming is a name connoting wickedness, (to be used of one) after he has believed: And those who do not desist are (indeed) doing wrong.

031.018: And do not turn your face away from people in contempt, nor go about in the land exulting overmuch; surely Allah does not love any self-conceited boaster;

031.019: And pursue the right course in your going about and lower your voice; surely the most hateful of voices is braying of the asses.

 

Abandon Sin

006.120: And abandon open and secret sin; surely they who earn sin shall be recompensed with what they earned.

 

Purpose of Life.

004.001 O people! be careful of (your duty to) your Lord, Who created you from a single being and created its mate of the same (kind) and spread from these two, many men and women; and be careful of (your duty to) Allah, by Whom you demand one of another (your rights), and (to) the ties of relationship; surely Allah ever watches over you.

 

Deal Gently among you

003.159  Thus it is due to mercy from Allah that you deal with them gently, and had you been rough, hard hearted, they would certainly have dispersed from around you; pardon them therefore and ask pardon for them, and take counsel with them in the affair; so when you have decided, then place your trust in Allah; surely Allah loves those who trust.

 

Mutual Consultative System of Law

042.038 : Those who hearken to their Lord, and establish regular Prayer; who (conduct) their affairs by mutual Consultation; who spend out of what We bestow on them for Sustenance;

 

Freedom of Religion

018.029 : Say, "The truth is from your Lord": Let him who will believe, and let him who will, reject (it): for the wrong-doers We have prepared a Fire whose (smoke and flames), like the walls and roof of a tent, will hem them in: if they implore relief they will be granted water like melted brass, that will scald their faces, how dreadful the drink! How uncomfortable a couch to recline on!

 

 

Protect Orphans.

004.002: To orphans restore their property (When they reach their age), nor substitute (your) worthless things for (their) good ones; and devour not their substance (by mixing it up) with your own. For this is indeed a great sin.

 

Women’s right to welfare after divorce.

065.001 : O Prophet! when you divorce women, divorce them for~ their prescribed time, and calculate the number of the days prescribed, and be careful of (your duty to) Allah, your Lord. Do not drive them out of their houses, nor should they themselves go forth, unless they commit an open indecency; and these are the limits of Allah, and whoever goes beyond the limits of Allah, he indeed does injustice to his own soul. You do not know that Allah may after that bring about reunion.

 

Right live in peace and tranquility

002.126 And remember Abraham said: "My Lord, make this a City of Peace, and feed its people with fruits,-such of them as believe in Allah and the Last Day." He said: "(Yea), and such as reject Faith,-for a while will I grant them their pleasure, but will soon drive them to the torment of Fire,- an evil destination (indeed)!"

 

Capital or Harsh punishments

There are no harsh punishments prescribed in the Holy Quran for an individual as is customer in most so called Islamic countries. Most of these are man made punishments.

·         There is no mention of stoning of death in the holy Quran.

·         There is no mention of cutting the limbs in the holy Quran.

·         The marking on hand by placing a slight cut on the hand of a thief, as would be a black mark on the credit history is prescribed in the holy Quran.

·         Murder is one of the crimes, which has capital punishment in the holy Quran.

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